67 terms

CLCIV 385

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Adonia
A feast mourning the death of Adonis
Celebrated exclusively by women
Adonis
God of beauty and desire
Son of Theias and Myrrha
Conceived when Theias daughter tricked Theias into mating
Aphrodite falls in love with him
Aeneas
Son of a goddess and mortal
Zeus arranged for Aphrodite to mate with Anchises (mortal)
Trojan hero
Anchises
Mortal shepherd
Due to Zeus's intervention, he mates with a goddess (Aphrodite)
Aphrodite
Goddess of Sexuality
Has the power to implant longing in one being for the other
Cestus - strap worn around her breasts
Implants irresistibility for Paris in order to get Helen
Married to Hephaestus, had an affair with Ares
He catches them in the act, due to an invisible net
Looks: Most beautiful in the Greek world
Ares
God of War (Violence)
Distasteful in battle
Son of Zeus and Hera
Affair with Aphrodite (2 sons)
Loses to Athena twice
Athena
Goddess of War (Craftsmanship)
Represents nobility and positive aspects
Asexual looking
The idea of the Trojan horse
Judgement of Paris
Led up to the Trojan War and to the foundation of Rome
Looks: female as a male soldier
Autochthony
The theory of man being sprung from earth
Takes place after Zeus floods the world. Deucalion and Pyrrha create this.
"Battle of wits"
For [Zeus] Prometheus laid out meat and entrails rich with fat in the hide, covering it in the ox's stomach, while for men he laid out the ox's white bones, which he arranged carefully for a cunning trick by covering them in glistening fat.
Birth of Aphrodite
She was born when Ouranos (sky) was with Gaia (earth) and the sky gets castrated by Kronos
Birth of Athena
Born from Zeus's head (Metis was the wife)
Shows how man was able to conceive children
Callisto
A nymph, daughter of Lycaon
Wanted to remain a virgin, but Zeus mates with her (transformed himself into Artemis and seduces her)
Cerberus
Hade's hound (three-headed dog)
Allows the dead to enter the death realm but not leave it
Charon
Ferryman of the dead (carries the souls of the newly deceased across the rivers that divide world of living and world of dead)
Contest for Athens
Athena vs Poseidon
Poseidon starts a saltwater spring
Athena nurtures an olive tree
This shows how Athena is thoughtful for the people and Poseidon just portrayed his power/skill
Cronus
Ruler of gods before Zeus
Youngest of 12 Titans of Sky and Earth
Cuts off Ouranos's genitals
Married his sister Rhea
He swallowed each of his children
Zeus was a trick
Eventually overthrown by him
Definition of myth
Traditional stories with collective importance
Demeter
Goddess of Grain and Agriculture
Daughter of Kronos and Rhea
Married Zeus
Persephone
Avoided the Olympians after the Hades incident
Poseidon lusted after her and mated in animal form
Deucalion and Pyrrha
Son of Prometheus
Zeus starts a rain that would flood the world
The couple makes a chest in order to survive
They ask the oracle of Themis on how to repopulate earth and it told them to throw bones (rocks) of their mother (Gaia) behind their shoulder
Earth (Gaea)
Mother of everything
Gaia and Uranus gave birth to Titans, Giants and the world
Eleusis/Eleusinian Mysteries
The Eleusinian Mysteries were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis
They are the "most famous of the secret religious rites of ancient Greece"
Elysium
It is the conception of afterlife
Initially reserved for mortals then opened up to gods
Epimetheus
Titan, son of Lapetus and Clymene
Was given Pandora as a gift from gods
Pyrrha
Eros
God of love
Son of Aphrodite and Ares
Can make anyone fall in love with each other
Europa
A mortal woman whom Zeus seduced in the form of a bull
Five Races of Humankind
Golden (Kronos), Silver (Zeus), Bronze (Humans), Heroic (Troy), Iron age
Furies/Eumenides
Female chthonic (below the earth) deities of vengeance
Greek marriage
Arranged by parents
Each city had own laws
The woman's father or guardian gave permission
Hades
God of death realm
Kingdom is called Erebos
Possessed items of unique value (chair of forgetfulness, cap of invisibility)
Helen
Helen of Troy, daughter of Zeus and Leda
Most beautiful women in the known world
Abducted by Theseus, brought back by siblings
Judgement of Paris
Aphrodite lets Paris get Helen
Trojan war (Between Paris and Melaneus (Sparta))
Hephaestus
Smith and craftsman
Conceived by Hera on her own (lame)
Creates Pandora
Married to Aphrodite
Lusted after Athena
Hera
Queen of gods
Married to Zeus
Parents are Kronos and Rhea
Hermes
God of thieves, heralds and herds
Served as a guide to the souls of the dead to the underworld and afterlife
Hesiod
Greek Poet
Shepherd pasturing his flocks on Mount Helicon
Visited by the 9 Muses who inspire him with song
Theogany, Works and Days
Hestia
Goddess of Hearth
Kronos and Rhea
Not worshipped publicly
Vow to remain virgin
Hippolytus
Son of the hero Theseus and Hippolyta.
Phaedra, the second wife of Theseus, tried to seduce Hippolytus, but he rejected her.
For revenge, Phaedra told Theseus that it was Hippolytus that tried to rape her.
Theseus, curses Hippolytus using one of the three wishes he was granted by the god Poseidon, who then sent a sea monster.
Homer
Author of Iliad and Odyssey
Hymn to Aphrodite
Zeus puts desire of Anchises in to Aphrodite to get back at her for making him fall in love with many mortal women
Aphrodite seduces the mortal Anchises by pretended she is a mortal too
Anchises then finds out and wishes death upon himself (fears smtg bad will happen to him)
She wants to marry him and meet parents
They both give birth to Aeneas (founder of Rome)
Anchises grows old and dies but sees his son become a hero before he dies
Does aphrodite have an consequences? No direct consequences, she is embarrassed and shameful about what she did, but no physical consequences.
Hymn to Demeter
Hades takes Persephone to the underworld as his wife
Demeter roams the earth for 9 days, fasting, looking for her daughter and then the sun god (Helios) told her Zeus gave her to Hades
Demeter pissed af leaves Olympus disguised as mortal woman Doso
Arrives in Eleusis and is recieved by King Celeus and Queen Metaneira
She reveals herself as a goddess but still mourning so she causes famine and drought (winter)
Zeus sends Hermes to bring Persephone back from Hades but he already fed her 4 pomegranate seeds so she has to stay 4 of the 12 months with Hades
This the reason for winter cuz Demeter is mourning
Is charter myth for Marriage, SEASONS, and Eleusinian mysteries
Hymn to Hermes
Stole Apollo's cattle that he valued very much and transported them
Zeus interfered and demanded Hermes return the cattle
Did Not return them instead played a Lyre for Apollo and sort of put him in a trance
Convinced Apollo to take Lyre and let him keep cattle
Indo-Europeans
Migrated to Greek Peninsula around 2000 BCE
Brought their language and traditions and adapted them to own purposes
Migration explains parallels between Greek and non Greek gods
Judgment of Paris
Decide the prettiest between
Hera : offers ruler of Europe
Athena : offers victory in war
Aphrodite: offers Helen
Katasterism
Transformation of a hero, after death, into a star of constellation
Honored by living eternally
Leda
Queen of Sparta
Gets raped by Zeus who is in the form of a swan
Metamorphoses
By Ovid
Tells story of how bodies(men) changed and how gods changed them
Creation of man (4 ages)
Daphne (Laurel Tree) and Lycaon (werewolf)
Chaos to cosmos
Minoans
Bronze Age
PreGreek indigenous culture of Crete
Association with bulls
Linear A
Minos
King of Minoans (Crete)
Son of Zeus and Europa
Associated with bulls cuz mother (Europa) seduced by bull (Zeus)
Mycenaeans
Bronze Age
Linear B
Lions gate outside kings palace
Home of King Agamemnon who survived Trojan war but returned to be killed by his wife Clytemnestra cuz he sacrificed his daughter to get to Troy (all i gotta do is cross 19 mile idk what this boy thinking)
Near East (Ancient)
Mesopotamian/Sumerian cultures
Hittites
Semetic cultures
Contributed to Greek myth: flood myth, sky/storm god, goddess of love, etc
Olympians
Descendents of Titans Cronus and Rhea
Ex: Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera, Hestia, Demeter, and their offspring who live on Olympus
Oral tradition
Divine myths and legends passed down by spoken word over many generations
Often told in poetry competitions for entertainment
Some eventually written down, but most stories have been lost
Orestes
Protagonist in Aeschylus's Euripides
Kills his mother Clytemnestra for killing his father Agamemnon
Athena, judge of the murder trial, sides with him because she "wholeheartedly approves the male"
Pandora
First mortal women
Created by gods to punish mortal men
Persephone
Goddess of dead
Daughter of Zeus and Demeter
Abducted by Hades
Phaedra
Hippolytus story
she killed herself and left a suicide note in which she accused Hippolytus of raping her.
she committed suicide out of guilt.
Poseidon
God of sea
Trident
Desired Demeter
Creates the first horse for her
Marries Persephone (Demeter's daughter)
Battle for Athens
Potiphar's Wife
a story in Genesis; Potiphar was in Genesis; buys a slave named Joseph; wife keeps trying; slave killed;
story shows the common idea of the woman falling in love or trying to seduce someone lesser, and then lying when they don't get what they want, ultimately causing the death of innocent men.
Prometheus
During the war between Titans and Olympians, he sides with Zeus
Tricks Zeus by giving Gods bones and humans meat
Steals fire for mankind
Zeus punishes him
Tied to a rock
Eagle eats his liver during day, it grows back during night
Saved by Hercules
Tartarus
A region in the underworld
Place where the monsters were banished to
Theogony
The Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods
Titans/Titanomachy
Children of Uranus and Gaia
Preceded the Olympians
Trickster
Hermes
Trojan War
War between Greeks and Sparta
Helen abduction by Paris (judgement of Paris)
important because gods take sides
gods are not perfect, don't care about humans
Typhoeus/Typhon
Father of All monsters
Last effort by Titans to stop the Olympians from overthrowing them
Underworld-
Entrance guarded by Cerberus (3 Headed Dog)
God of Underworld is Hades
Souls, Charon (the ferryman)
Entrance is beneath Earth or farthest realm of Oceanus
Five Rivers (Styx, Acheron, Lethe, Pyriphilegethon, Cocytus)
Descirbed as forest like
Split into Tartarus(punishments), Elysinian fields(regions of joy), Fields of Lamentation(love consumed)
Uranus
Sky
Separated from Gaia by Kronos
His genitals make Aphrodite
Zeus
God of sky
Ruler of Olympians
Overthrows Kronos and Titans
Infamous for multiple affairs