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MIS Chapter 4
Terms in this set (80)
Which of the following best describes how new information systems result in legal gray areas?
A) They work with networked, electronic data, which are more difficult to control than information stored manually.
B) They result in new situations that are not covered by old laws.
C) They are implemented by technicians rather than managers.
D) They are created from sets of logical and technological rules rather than social or organizational mores.
E) They are little understood by politicians or lawyers.
They result in new situations that are not covered by old laws.
Which of the following best describes the effect that new information technology has on society?
A) It has a dampening effect on the discourse of business ethics.
B) It has a ripple effect, raising new ethical, social, and political issues.
C) It is beneficial for society as a whole, while raising dilemmas for consumers.
D) It has a waterfall effect in raising ever more complex ethical issues.
E) It has a magnifying effect, creating increasing numbers of ethical issues.
It has a ripple effect, raising new ethical, social, and political issues.
The moral dimension of ________ can be described as the obligations that individuals and organizations have concerning rights to intellectual property.
A) property rights and obligations
B) system quality
C) accountability and control
D) information rights and obligations
E) quality of life
property rights and obligations
In the information age, the obligations that individuals and organizations have regarding the preservation of existing values and institutions fall within the moral dimension of
A) family and home.
B) property rights and obligations.
C) system quality.
D) accountability and control.
E) quality of life.
quality of life.
Which of the following is not one of the current key technology trends that raises ethical issues?
A) data storage improvements
B) data analysis advancements
C) increase in multimedia quality
D) increase in use of mobile devices
E) advances in networking technology
increase in multimedia quality
The central business activities of ChoicePoint raise which of the five moral dimensions?
A) property rights and obligations
B) system quality
C) accountability and control
D) quality of life
E) information rights and obligations
information rights and obligations
The routine violation of individual privacy is made more difficult by advances in data storage.
In today's legal environment, business managers who violate the law through the misuse of information systems are still unlikely to be fully prosecuted.
________ means that you accept the potential costs and obligations for the decisions you make.
D) Due process
________ is a feature of social institutions that means mechanisms are in place to determine responsibility for an action.
A) Due process
C) The courts of appeal
D) The judicial system
________ is a societal practice of having laws that are known and understood, along with the ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly.
B) Due process
C) The courts of appeal
E) The judicial system
As discussed in the chapter, all of the following are steps in the process for analyzing an ethical issue except
A) assigning responsibility.
B) identifying the stakeholders.
C) identifying the options you can reasonably take.
D) identifying and clearly describing the facts.
E) identifying the potential consequences of your options.
A peer at work takes small amounts of office supplies for her own use at home, saying that this is a tiny loss to the company. You tell her that if everyone were to take office supplies, then the loss would no longer be minimal. Your rationale expresses which historical ethical principle?
A) Kant's Categorical Imperative
B) The Golden Rule
C) The Risk Aversion Principle
D) The "No free lunch" rule
E) The slippery-slope rule
Kant's Categorical Imperative
A man steals from a grocery store in order to feed his starving family. Which of the following best expresses the Utilitarian Principle in evaluating this situation?
A) His action is acceptable, because the grocer suffers the least harm.
B) His action is acceptable, because the higher social value is the survival of the family.
C) His action is wrong, because the man would not want the grocer to steal from him.
D) His action is wrong, because if everyone were to do this, the concept of personal property is defeated.
E) His action is wrong, because the grocery store owner is harmed.
His action is acceptable, because the higher social value is the survival of the family.
Which of the following describes Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative?
A) If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time.
B) One should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.
C) One can put values in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.
D) If an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone to take.
E) You should act towards others as you would like them to act towards you.
If an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone to take.
The ethical "no free lunch" rule states that
A) if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time.
B) one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.
C) one can put values in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.
D) everything is owned by someone else, and that the creator wants compensation for this work.
E) anything of value should not be taken.
everything is owned by someone else, and that the creator wants compensation for this work
Taking the action that produces the least harm best describes the
A) Categorical Imperative.
B) Risk Aversion Principle.
C) Utilitarian Principle.
D) Golden Rule.
E) "no free lunch" rule.
Risk Aversion Principle
As per the ________, if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all.
A) slippery-slope rule
B) lemming rule
C) high-failure cost rule
D) utilitarian principle
E) Golden Rule
) Identifying the stakeholders—people who have a vested interest in the outcome of the decision—is the last step in analyzing an ethical issue.
Because of their special claims to knowledge, wisdom, and respect, professionals take on special rights and obligations.
The European Parliament has yet to ban unsolicited commercial messaging.
Ethics describes the principles of right and wrong that can be used by individuals to make choices to guide their behavior.
Liability is a feature of political systems and allows individuals to recover damages done to them by others.
The ethical guideline that asks you to put yourself in the place of others, and think of yourself as the object of the decision, is called the Utilitarian Principle.
________ is the use of computers to assemble data from different sources to create electronic dossiers of detailed information about individuals.
________ is a new data analysis technology that finds hidden connections between data in disparate sources.
In 2010, the FTC added all of the following recommendations to its privacy guidelines except
A) firms should build products and services that protect privacy.
B) firms should increase the transparency of their data collection.
C) firms should require consumer consent and provide clear options to opt out of data collection.
D) firms should limit the length of time that any personal data is stored to six months or less.
E) consumers should be able to review and contest the accuracy and completeness of data.
firms should limit the length of time that any personal data is stored to six months or less.
________ restricts the information that the U.S. federal government can collect about an individual and regulates what it can do with the information.
A) The Privacy Act of 1974
B) The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999
C) The Freedom of Information Act
D) The FIP set of principles
The Privacy Act of 1974
Which of the following best describes the basis for the FIP principles?
A) the accountability of the record holder
B) the responsibility of the record holder
C) the mutuality of interest between the record holder and the individual
D) the privacy of the individual
E) the difference between the interests of the individual and commercial organizations
the mutuality of interest between the record holder and the individual
The Federal Trade Commission FIP principle of Notice/Awareness states that
A) customers must be allowed to choose how their information will be used for secondary purposes other than the supporting transaction.
B) data collectors must take responsible steps to assure that consumer information is accurate and secure from unauthorized use.
C) there must be a mechanism in place to enforce FIP principles.
D) consumers should be able to review the data collected about them.
E) Web sites must disclose their information practices before collecting data.
Web sites must disclose their information practices before collecting data.
Which of the following U.S. laws gives patients access to personal medical records and the right to authorize how this information can be used or disclosed?
B) Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
C) Privacy Protection Act
D) Freedom of Information Act
Privacy protection in the United States is ________ in Europe.
A) more far reaching than
B) more liable to laws than
C) much more stringent than
D) much less stringent than
E) at about the same level of strictness as
much less stringent than
U.S. businesses are allowed to use personal data from EU countries if they
A) have informed consent.
B) create a safe harbor.
C) develop equivalent privacy protection policies.
D) make their privacy protection policies publicly available.
E) register their activities with a central EU government databank
develop equivalent privacy protection policies.
Cookies created during Web site visits are stored
A) on the Web site's server.
B) on the user's computer.
C) on servers owned by advertising networks.
D) in the browser's application settings.
E) nowhere, because they are only used during a visit and are discarded once a visitor leaves the Web site.
on the user's computer.
The ________ framework developed by the U.S. Department of Commerce allows U.S. businesses to legally use personal data from EU countries.
The Online Privacy Alliance
A) encourages self regulation to develop a set of privacy guidelines for its members.
B) protects user privacy during interactions with Web sites.
C) has established technical guidelines for ensuring privacy.
D) is a government agency regulating the use of customer information.
E) is a lobbying organization promoting the online privacy interests of consumers
encourages self regulation to develop a set of privacy guidelines for its members.
In the ________ model of informed consent, personal information can be collected until the consumer specifically requests that his or her data not be collected.
Which of the following is not one of the types of information gathered by Web site tracking tools?
A) health concerns
E) marital status
The limitation of trade secret protection for software is that it is difficult to prevent the ideas in the work from falling into the public domain when
A) the courts become involved.
B) hackers are able to break into the source code.
C) the software is widely distributed.
D) a new version of the software is released.
E) the software's programming code is released.
the software is widely distributed.
Which of the following best describes intellectual property?
A) intangible property created by individuals or corporations
B) unique creative work or ideas
C) tangible or intangible property created from a unique idea
D) the expression of an intangible idea
E) any tangible or intangible property within the creative arts
intangible property created by individuals or corporations
________ protects the creators of intellectual property from having their work copied by others.
A) Patent protection
B) Intellectual property law
C) Copyright law
D) Fair Use Doctrine
E) Trade Secret law
"Look and feel" copyright infringement lawsuits are concerned with
A) the distinction between tangible and intangible ideas.
B) the distinction between an idea and its expression.
C) using the graphical elements of another product.
D) using the creative elements of another product.
E) preventing the use of another product's graphical user interface.
the distinction between an idea and its expression.
The strength of patent protection is that it
A) puts the strength of law behind copyright.
B) allows protection from Internet theft of ideas put forth publicly.
C) is easy to define.
D) provides a clear distinction between software and books.
E) grants a monopoly on underlying concepts and ideas.
grants a monopoly on underlying concepts and ideas.
One of the drawbacks of patent protection is
A) that only the underlying ideas are protected.
B) digital media cannot be patented.
C) preventing the ideas from falling into public domain.
D) the years of waiting to receive it.
E) the limited period of protection.
the years of waiting to receive it.
The ________ brought copyright law to the Internet age by outlawing the circumvention of technology-based protections of copyrighted materials.
A) Digital Millennium Copyright Act
B) Privacy Act
C) Freedom of Information Act
D) Electronic Communications Privacy Act
E) Computer Software Copyright Act
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Unlike regular browser cookies, Flash cookies
A) are installed only at the user's request.
B) are not stored on the user's computer.
C) cannot be easily detected or deleted.
D) monitor the user's behavior at a Web site.
E) are able to track much more of the user's personal information
cannot be easily detected or deleted.
________ enables advertisers to display more relevant ads based on user's search and browsing history.
A) Behavioral targeting
B) A Web bug
D) An intelligent agent
________ prohibits an organization from collecting any personal information unless the individual specifically takes action to approve information collection and use.
A) A legal safe harbor
B) The opt-in model
C) The FIP set of guidelines
The opt-in model
Which legal mechanism grants the owner exclusive ownership of the ideas behind an invention for 20 years?
D) trade secret protection
A Facebook users' visit to a Web site can be tracked even if they do not click a Like button.
Malicious software that is installed secretly on your computer by other applications and that tracks your online movements is called spyware.
Most Internet businesses do very little to protect the privacy of their customers.
The rate of global piracy is approximately 42%.
Any intellectual work product that isn't based on public knowledge can be classed as a trade secret.
Copyright is the legal protection afforded intellectual property, including drawings, movies, and maps.
Software programs were unprotected by copyright law until the early 1990s.
The problem with Web browsers' Do Not Track options is that Web sites aren't obligated to honor these settings.
According to several court findings, the general functional features of software are protected by copyright law.
One of the key concepts in patent law is novelty.
In recent years, the illegal sharing of music files has declined with the improvement of technological prevention.
COPPA is a set of five principles developed by the FTC that most American and European privacy law is based on.
Although online tracking gathers an enormous amount of information on individual users, it is anonymous and can't be tied to a specific person.
Web beacons are tiny, invisible software programs hidden in e-mail messages and Web pages that are used to track and report a user's online behavior.
Key differences between software and books include all of the following except
A) software contains more information than a book.
B) software is less easily inspected than a book.
C) software products are more easily compared to each other than books.
D) software is understood to be more fallible than a book.
E) it is more difficult to inspect software for flaws.
software products are more easily compared to each other than books.
When a software product is considered ________, it becomes difficult to hold software producers liable for flaws in their product.
A) to be part of a machine
B) similar to books
C) a service
D) to be an artistic expression
E) a tangible product rather than a service
similar to books
________ are not held liable for the messages they transmit.
A) Regulated common carriers
B) Private individuals
C) Organizations and businesses
D) Elected officials
E) European ISPs
Regulated common carriers
Companies can't realistically create error-free software because
A) any programming code is susceptible to error.
B) it is too expensive to create perfect software.
C) errors can be introduced in the maintenance stage of development.
D) any software of any complexity will have errors.
E) many errors are brought on by the user's operating system.
it is too expensive to create perfect software.
) The most common reason business systems fail is
A) software bugs.
B) software errors.
C) hardware failures.
D) facilities failures.
E) data quality.
Which of the following is a primary drawback to the "do anything anywhere" computing environment?
A) It makes work environments less pleasant.
B) It creates inequality between workers who have home computing power and those who don't.
C) It centralizes power at corporate headquarters.
D) It blurs the traditional boundaries between work and family time.
E) It leads to employees being paid less for the total amount of work performed.
It blurs the traditional boundaries between work and family time.
Which of the following is the primary reason that the practice of spamming has grown exponentially?
A) Telephone solicitation is no longer legal.
B) It is good advertising practice and brings in many new customers.
C) It helps pay for the Internet.
D) It is very inexpensive and can reach so many people.
E) There are no legal preventions against it.
It is very inexpensive and can reach so many people.
The U.S. CAN-SPAM Act of 2003
A) makes spamming illegal.
B) requires spammers to identify themselves.
C) has dramatically cut down spamming.
D) does not override state anti-spamming laws.
E) does not outlaw the use of fake return addresses.
requires spammers to identify themselves.
Spamming raises the moral dimension of
A) quality of life.
B) system quality.
C) accountability and control.
D) information rights and obligations.
E) property rights and obligations.
quality of life.
Re-designing and automating business processes can be seen as a double-edged sword because
A) increases in efficiency may be accompanied by job losses.
B) increases in efficiency may be accompanied by poor data quality.
C) support for middle-management decision making may be offset by poor data quality.
D) reliance on technology results in the loss of hands-on knowledge.
E) senior executives may not approve the changes.
increases in efficiency may be accompanied by job losses.
The extreme difference among different social groups regarding their access to computers and the Internet is called the ________ divide.
CVS refers to
A) eyestrain related to computer display screen use.
B) a business practice that attempts to evaluate the intangible values of computer systems.
C) carpal vision syndrome.
D) a type of antivirus protection software.
E) wrist injuries brought about by incorrect hand position when using a keyboard.
eyestrain related to computer display screen use.
Which of the following ailments is caused by tens of thousands of repetitions under low-impact loads?
) Gaining unapproved access to a computer is not a federal crime
Spam is legally defined as any e-mail that is unsolicited.
The symptoms of technostress include aggravation and hostility toward humans.
Computer abuse refers to acts involving the computer that may not be illegal but are considered unethical.
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