32 terms

Chapter 4, Section 3: Causes of the American Revolution

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Proclamation of 1763
This order from King George III banned colonists from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Stamp Act
Passed by Parliament in 1765, this law required colonists to pay a tax on all official documents, newspapers, pamphlets and even playing cards.
French and Indian War
The __________ was a very expensive war between British and French colonies in North America (and their Native allies) that lasted from 1754 to 1763. Though the British were victorious, the war (along with the related Seven Years' War) left them deep in debt. One result of this was multiple attempts to increase tax revenue in the colonies.
Stamp Act Congress
This group met in New York City in 1765 to coordinate a response to the passage of the Stamp Act. Nine colonies sent representatives. They stated their opposition to being taxed by Parliament while not being represented (No taxation without representation).
Boston Massacre
Killing of five people by British soldiers in 1770.
Boston Tea Party
1773 protest of the Tea Act that involved colonists "disguised" as Mohawk Indians dumping crates of Tea into Boston Harbor.
Intolerable Acts
Series of laws passed by Parliament meant to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party and to restore order, especially in Massachusetts. This was what the colonists collectively called the laws.
Boston Port Act
One of the Intolerable Acts, this closed the port of Boston until the colonists had paid for the tea destroyed during the Boston Tea Party.
Administration of Justice Act
One of the Intolerable Acts, this law allowed the governor of Massachusetts to relocate any trial to another colony or to Great Britain if he believed that an impartial jury could not be seated. The concern was that juries would acquit guilty colonists and convict innocent British soldiers.
Massachusetts Government Act
One of the Intolerable Acts, this law put the government of Massachusetts under the control of the royal governor. The colonial legislature was no longer allowed to meet, and town meetings were limited to one per year.
Quartering Act
One of the Intolerable Acts, this law required the colonists to provide housing for British soldiers.
Thomas Jefferson
Primary author of the Declaration of Independence.
Second Continental Congress
Group consisting of representatives from each of the thirteen colonies that voted to declare independence from Great Britain of July 2nd, 1776.
July 2nd, 1776
When did the Second Continental Congress vote for independence?
July 4th, 1776
When did the members of the Second Continental Congress finish editing the Declaration of Independence and adopt it?
John Locke
The phrase "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" from the Declaration of Independence came from what British philosopher?
life, liberty and property
On what John Locke quote was "life, liberty and pursuit of happiness" based?
From the consent of the governed
According to the Declaration, from where do governments derive their just powers?
To secure the people's natural rights (unalienable rights)
According to the Declaration, what is the main purpose of government?
Thomas Paine
Who wrote "Common Sense"?
Independence
"Common Sense" was written to advocate what?
The list of grievances
What is the longest section of the Declaration of Independence?
Social Compact
A ___________ is an agreement between the people and their government. The government promises to protect the rights of its people and look out for their best interests. The people promise to be loyal to the government.
Limited Government
__________ is when the government's power is defined by a constitution or other laws.
Rule of law
The legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by arbitrary decisions of individual government officials. This also means that everyone, including the rulers, must follow the law.
Natural (Unalienable)
__________ rights are the rights that every person is entitled to. Some examples are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Right of Revolution
The right to overthrow a government if it abuses its power or does not protect the natural rights of its people.
Separation of Powers
The division of power among different branches of government. This is meant to keep one branch from becoming too powerful.
tariff
A __________ is a tax on an import or export.
1775 to 1783
The American war for independence (American Revolution) lasted from __________.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War was the __________.
Parliament
The British legislature, __________, is divided into the House of Commons and the House of Lords.