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Cognitive Neuroscience exam 2
Terms in this set (90)
this method of measuring electrical activity of the brain is recording from individual neurons (or units). this can tell us about the firing rate. it is used only on animals
single unit recording
this is the property of the stimulus that affects the firing rate of the target neuron
region of space that the neuron is sensitive to
this type of technique allows us to look at what individual neurons are doing
single unit recording
this type of electrical activity technique is when there are electrodes placed on the scalp and they record waves of activity. it records spontaneous brain activity (patterns and waves) and is non invasive
in an EEG, what do the patterns and waves represent?
levels of consciousness
this type of imaging has the best temporal resolution
this imaging allows you to look at how someone's brain waves change when presented with a stimulus
this is a specific type of brain wave that is measured with an EEG. it is generated in response to an infrequent, familiar target stimulus
these type of techniques are used for delivering current to the brain and monitoring effects
brain stimulation techniques
this type of brain stimulation technique is when you drill a hole in the skull and the brain is exposed. Penfield (1937) pioneered this. you are delivering electrical stimulation to specific site of brain. gives you strong causal method, but not done experimentally.
electrical stimulation of the brain
this type of brain stimulation technique is stimulation delivered outside the skull. used a magnet on outside of skull that interferes with specific area it is on. if magnet is put on language areas, your language will be impaired, same with motor areas/movement). gives strong causal inference
transcranial magnetic stimulation
this type of dynamic brain imaging technique is very similar to the EEG. it measures the magnetic field generated by brain's electrical activity. gives better spatial resolution than EEG (but still not as good as fMRI). it is less sensitive to detecting problems in deep structures
this type of measure detects changes in metobolism after brain activity. inflow of newly oxygenated blood to the brain area that was used
this type of imaging measures dynamic magnetic fields generated by oxygenated hemaglobin. measures blood oxygen level dependent activity and generates a detailed map of the brain. can be used for stroke or how the brain develops. this has best spatial resolution
what is the dominant neuroimage used today?
this type of imaging measures spatial concentration of radioactive tracer injected. tracer can be associated with different types of molecules
this type of imaging measures light reflected by oxygenated tissue in specific areas. only detects signal from cortical regions
near infra red spectroscopy (NIRS)
main connection between hemispheres. bundle of 250 million fibers running between hemispheres
which hemisphere is more involved in language and analytical processing (problem solving)
which hemisphere is more involved in visual spatial tasks
this was used to cure seizures and reduce their effects. there were not a lot of negative effects (used in 1940s-1960s)
this structure is seen in oblique sections at the level of the temporal lobe. asymmetric structure - quite larger in left hemisphere and appears before birth. it is right next to the language area in temporal lobe (wernickes area)
what are other structures that connect the left and right hemisphere?
anterior and posterior commissure
this type of connection connects two structures that are symmetrical in two hemispheres
this type of connections connects two structures in each hemispheres that are in different locations
adjacent stimuli are processed by what in the cortex?
stimuli in our body are represented in a map like fashion. this is called?
this is the map of visual information you are attending to. map-like representation of the visual field in your cortex. not a map of the body, only the visual scene
the somatotopic map is what two things?
1. contraleteral 2. distorted (over representation of more sensitive areas in the body)
what is topological organization?
adjacent stimuli (on body or in visual scene) are processed by adjacent parts of the brain
map like representation of sensitive areas in our body
this happens when a person still feels their lost limb after it's gone. it is usually very painful. shows that the somatotopic brain can change and get assigned different jobs
what will happen to an area of the brain that has lost its job? (arm gets cut off)
it will get reassigned a new job
this early method of brain function techniques is what Broca used. the advantage is that it is easy, and available for a long time. the disadvantage is that you have to wait for someone to die, you need to find patients with the same exact lesion, and you cannot control the availability of patients. it only gives you correlational relationsihp
this early method of brain function techniques is a painless procedure that gives you strong causal inference. however, it is invasive
lesions on animals
this is a LATERALIZED ability, meaning most of this function is found in the left hemisphere.
this hemisphere is important for emotional prosody and processing melodies in song and speech
this hemisphere specializes in quick, sequential movements
this hemisphere has dominance in visuospatial processing
this hemisphere has dominance in discriminating faces
this hemisphere has dominance in generating spontaneous and voluntary facial expressions
voluntary facial expressions start at the level of?
involuntary facial expressions start at the level of?
basal ganglia (travels down to facial nerves)
this hemisphere is better at analyzing LOCAL (small detail) information
this hemisphere is better at analyzing GLOBAL (big picture) information
this hemisphere is important for a distinctively human ability: making causal inferences and interpretations
this hemisphere makes more memory distortions (recalls events that did not occur, but relate to the event)
the left hemisphere is known as?
regarding visual perception, word recognition is faster when stimuli are presented to what side?
right visual field (goes to the left hemisphere)
regarding auditory input, we are better at understanding and recognizing stimuli that is presented to what side?
right ear (goes to the left hemisphere)
40% of our brain processes?
this structure in the eye is the protective layer, it's the first layer that light goes through
this structure in the eye is what converges light to project to the back of your eye. is able to move
this structure of the eye is the layer of tissue in the back of your eye that contains photoreceptors
this structure of the eye is the part of the retina where optic nerve emerges (there is not photoreceptors in this spot)
this is liquid in the eye
this structure of the eye is the spot of the retina where you project the object you are attending to. when looking at someone, their face is in this spot
this type of vision allows us to see objects in detail
this vision allows us to see what is around us, but not in detail
this structure in the eye has three layers of neurons
this structure in the eye is farthest from the light coming in.
what are the two types of photoreceptors?
rods and cones
this type of photoreceptor is more light sensitive, doesn't allow us to see in color or high definition
this type of photoreceptor allows us to see in color (chromatic). it needs a lot of light to function
rods are more densely packed where?
outside of fovea
what are the three types of neurons in the retina?
1. photoreceptors 2. bipolar cells 3. ganglion cells
how many types of cones do humans have?
what three wavelengths are cones most sensitive to?
red (long), green (medium), blue (short)
this type of vision is a different activation across 3 cones provides a unique code for each color
trichromatic color vision
one or more cone type is missing results in?
when light hits this part of a ganglion cell, it excites the neuron and more action potentials are fired
when light hits this part of the ganglion cell, it inhibits the neuron and less action potentials are fired
perceiving areas of different brightness because of adjacent areas
what are the ganglion cells sensitive to?
contrasts in brightness
window of vision, 180 degree angle in front of our eyes
portion of visual field that activates the photoreceptor
receptive field of photoreceptor
what is the receptive field of the ganglion cell?
what forms the optic nerve?
axons of ganglion cells
cones are highly concentrated where?
this structure is where the segregation of left and right visual field happens. the inside of the retina goes to the opposite hemisphere and the outside of the retina goes to the same hemisphere
this is the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. it has a similar receptive field to the ganglion cell
what is the flow chart after the retina?
retina to photoreceptors to bipolar cells to ganglion cells to optic nerve to optic chiasm (not an actual stop) to LGN to V1
the primary visual cortex (v1) has what type of map?
retinotopic map (there is a map in the brain of what is being projected into the retina)
whatever falls in the fovea is what in the brain?
1% of what you're looking at (going through the fovea) takes up how much % in v1?
what are three features of the v1?
1. distorted 2. contralateral 3. upside down
what are the two types of receptive fields in v1?
1. edge detectors 2. bar detectors
the receptive fields in v1 helps you detect?
edges and bars and their inclination (shapes)
ganglion cells sharpen?
edges and enhance contrast
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