Explain and demonstrate the steps to ensure reliability.
1. Use consistent, well-defined positions.
2. Use consistent, well-defined, and carefully palpated anatomical landmarks to align the goniometer.
3. Use the same amount of manual force to move subject's body part during successive measurements of passive ROM.
4. Urge subject to exert the same effort to move the body part during successive measurements of active ROM.
5. Use the same device to take successive measurements.
6. Use a goniometer that is suitable in size to the joint being measured.
7. If examiner is less experienced, record the mean of several measurements rather than a single measurement.
8. Have the same examiner, rather than a different examiner, take successive measurements.