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Terms in this set (120)
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change from womb to tomb
a person's inherited traits, determined by genetics
An individual's environmental and social experiences and how they shape their development
Nature vs Nurture
genetic inheritance vs environment and experience; which has more bearing on a person's development? (psychology's biggest issue)
Continuity & Stages
Researchers tend to see experience and learning as continuous and biological maturation in stages.
the fertilized egg, from the time it is fertilized until it is implanted in the uterus.
early stage of human development, when cells have begun to differentiate; stage in prenatal development from 2 to 8 weeks
The developing organism between the embryonic stage and birth; Week 9-birth (wk 40)
Dangerous chemicals and/or substances that cross the placental barrier and prevent the fetus from developing normally; drugs, Alcohol
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
the physical and mental defects to the fetus caused by consumption of alcohol during pregnancy
natural reflex of a newborn to turn toward stimulus and begin sucking motions when cheek or lip is touched; they instinctively want to nurse
Reflex that causes a newborn to make sucking motions when a finger or nipple if placed in the mouth
a simple form of learning that involves a decrease in response to repeated or continued stimulation
infants are more likely to pay attention to new objects/people than those they've seen before
highly used neural pathways strengthen, infrequently used pathways weaken
developmental changes that occur as a result of automatic, genetically determined signals
inability to remember experiences that occurred prior to 3 years of age
the way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing
Known for his 4 stage theory of Cognitive Development for children
a conceptual framework that organizes and interprets information and allows a person to make sense of the world
(v.) to absorb fully or make one's own; to adopt as one's own; to adapt fully
adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
4 stages of Piaget's theory of Developmental Cognition
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (Stage 1)
Birth-2 years: sensorimotor stage. First of Piaget's four stages that define cognitive development. During this period, infants are busy discovering relationships between their bodies and the environment. Very hands on and sensory.
develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible
State 2: Age 2-6 Child uses symbols (words & objects) to represent objects but does not reason logically; during this stage the child is egocentric (self discovery and awareness)
the understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes. The ability to understand that redistributing material (liquid or mass) does not affect its mass, number, volume or length; by age 7 most children can conserve liquid because they understand when water is poured into a different shaped glass the quantity remains the same.
a young child's inability to understand another person's perspective;
self-centered; seeing everything in terms of oneself
theory of mind
Beliefs, desires and intentions, which are used to understand why someone acts in a certain way or to predict how someone will act. it involves understanding another person's knowledge, beliefs, emotions and intentions and using that understanding to navigate social situations; i.e. show a child a bandaid box and he will think there's band aids in it; open it and show him there's something else... now what does the child think is in the band aid box? Band aids or something else?
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE piaget
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development (7-12 years) during which the child develops simple logic and masters conservation concepts.
FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE
Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development (12+ years) during which the child begins to think logically about abstract concepts and engage in hypothetical thinking.
Characterized by withdrawal and impaired development in social interaction and communication
(psychiatry) an abnormal absorption with the self
Reflecting on Piaget's theory
the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth;
When the assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses.
Zone of proximal development
The zone of proximal development, often abbreviated as ZPD, is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help. It is a concept introduced, yet not fully developed, by Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) during the last ten years of his life.
the fear of strangers that infants begin to display at about 8 months of age.
the emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers
conducted attachment experiments with baby rhesus monkeys
monkey studies showed we need body contact
specific time when a given event or its absence has a specific impact on development
researcher who focused on critical attachment periods in baby birds, a concept he called imprinting
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
the phenomenon by which the greater the exposure we have to a given stimulus, the more we like it
an experiment conducted by Mary Ainsworth to systematically study attachment patterns in infants
Attachment Types (4 types)
An infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver; based on trust
Infants are wary of exploring the environment and resist they cling to the mother or caregiver
researcher who described attachment styles in infants as measured by the "strange situation" test
an infant's natural disposition to show a particular mood at a particular intensity for a specific period
babies who have negative moods and are slow to adapt to new situations;
babies that are more irritable, intense, and unpredictable.
irregular and irritable
babies who have a positive disposition; body functions operate regularly; they are adaptable;
Cheerful, relaxed, and predictable in feeding and sleeping
disturbed by new stimuli at first but gradually adjust to them (about 15 percent of babies)
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
Deprivation of Attachment
causes children to become (1) withdrawn (2) frightened (3) unable to develop speech; Abuse-breeds-abuse phenomenon
one's idea and evaluation of oneself; this contributes to one's sense of identity
Parenting style with Absolute and restrictive rules by parent accompanied by punishment for disobedience
Parents set no firm guidelines for behavior and tend to give in to demands of the child.
Parenting style using flexible rules for which reasons are generally given. Parents are warm and nurture independence within guidelines.
Culture and Child rearing
The social definition of being male or female
any behavior intended to hurt someone, either physically or psychologically.
male answer syndrome
when men are more likely to guess "hazard" and answer, than to admit they don't know an answer (compared to women)
dependent on one another; mutually dependent
The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans (the other is the Y chromosome). ... Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. Early in embryonic development in females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly and permanently inactivated in cells other than egg cells.
The Y chromosome is the sex chromosome that contains one gene that signals a series of chemical events to occur during prenatal development, which together, result in the development of a male child. The X chromosome is a sex chromosome that both males and females have (females have two X chromosomes).
male sex hormone
Non Myelated Axons in the CNS. consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
Myelated Axons in the CNS; made up of cells that transmit brain signals from one region of the cerebrum to another, or from the cerebrum to the lower brains centers. White matter is primarily associated with processing and cognition and acts as a relay between the different regions of the brain.
a set of expected behaviors, attitudes and activities for males and females
one's sense of being male or female
The process of developing the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions associated with a particular gender.
the instinct which drives some children to fit into traditional gender roles
Social Learning Theory
Bandura's view of human development; emphasizes interaction; Social behavior can be learned by observation and through interaction
an internal cognitive, mental framework that organizes perceptions and directs behavior related to gender... Male or female
Mark Rosenzweig & David Krech - Brain Plasticity
Brain Plasticity - early experiences leave their "marks" in the brain and "environmental therapy" can stimulate brain growth in kids & adults.
- Experiment: Rats living in an "enriched environment" with stimulating interactive tasks performed better at learning activities than those in passive, solitary, impoverished conditions.
Credit or blame Parents
children seek out peers with similar attitudes and interests; adolescents tend to select out similar others and sort themselves into like-minded groups
The developmental stage between childhood and adulthood
Begins at about age 12 or 13;
Developmental stage at which a person becomes capable of reproduction.
Primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
Secondary sex characteristics
Nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair; distinguish maleness and femaleness but are not necessary for reproduction
beginning of menstruation
period during which males achieve first ejaculation
Theory of Stages of Moral Development;
the thinking process involved in deciding whether an act is right or wrong
First of Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning; children to age 9 behave to avoid punishment or seek personal gain
Kohlberg's second stage: early adolescence; uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order
Kohlberg's stage at which behavior is based on personal moral choices are made according to personal standards and reason.
Haidt's Social Intuitionist Theory
The willingness to give up something you want now in order to get something better in the future.
Neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
A person's view of who they are in terms of both internal and external factors; one's sense of self, characteristics and values
THE "WE" ASPECT OF OUR SELF CONCEPT. THE PART OF OUR ANSWER OF WHO AM I
ERIKSON; achieved after discovering personal identity; results in a shared identity with partner
Close personal association involving choice, mutuality, reciprocity, trust and delight.
PERIOD OF AGE BETWEEN 18 AND MID 20'S
cessation of the menses, usually occurring around 48 to 51 years of age
People tend to put off dying when there is an event to look forward to, such as holidays
Broad term that refers to loss of cognitive and social function, including memory impairment that are caused by changes in the brain
a form of dimentia;
A degenerative brain disease usually noticed first by its debilitating effects on memory; it is progressive and leads to a gradual, irreversivle decline in cognitive abilities; caused by ameloyd plaque build-up on the brain
remembering to do something in the future
a study in which people or groups of people of different ages are compared with one another
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
A person's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills it generally increase as we age
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Reflections on 3 major development issue
Known for "Stages of the Ethic of Care" based on the moral development of women.
She challenged Kohlberg's Theory of Development Stages - said it was geared toward men; She did her study on women.
Circular reaction (Piaget)
Primary Circular Reactions. The second substage is the stage of primary circular reactions. The baby will repeat pleasurable actions centred on its own body. For example, babies from 1 - 4 months old will wiggle their fingers, kick their legs and suck their thumbs. These are not reflex actions.
Symbolic thinking (Piaget)
Bi-dimensional thinking (Piaget)
Multiple Classification (Piaget)
Mathematical Transformations (Piaget)
Hypothetical Reasoning (Piaget)
Deductive Reasoning (Piaget)
a child's realization that gender is fixed and does not change over time or as they grow
PKU; an inherited inability to metabolize phenylalanine that causes brain and nerve damage if untreated.
Displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics
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