Apush Unit Two Chapter 10
Terms in this set (60)
- farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey; the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion; showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper No. 10. Today's parties or interest groups are what Madison had in mind when he warned of the instability in government caused by factions.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
foreign revolt that affected American social and political life
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Agreement by France to fund American military aids and loans to American colonies. France wanted to piss of Britain basically.
a 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict
..., French diplomat who in 1793 tried to draw the United States into the war between France and England (1763-1834)
A General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Left British made arms on the fields of battle. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
1794 attack against the Miamis Indians by American General
Treaty of Greenville
(1795) Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes gave the Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exhange for a reservation and $10,000.
American feeble attempt to avoid war with britain
Referred to as Washington's Farewell Address. Its main points included: assuming leadership in the Western Hemisphere, developing its own trade, and not entering into permanent alliances with foreign nations, especially with Europe.
1796; Federalist; notable events include XYZ affair, the passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts, and his appointment of John Marshall (Federalist) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and numerous federalist
A term used to describe Alexander Hamilton and some of his less-moderate supporters. They wanted the naval war with France to continue and also wanted to severly limit the rights of an opposition party.
1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice. Oversaw over 1000 decisions, including Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.
(1797) an incident in which French agents attempted to get a bribe and loans from U.S. diplomats in exchange for an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships
"Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute"
slogans condemning bribes after the xyz affair
French leader from 1799 to 1815 was ambitious: wanted to dominate europe and own US. Led France into Napoleonic Wars
Convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
Laws against hostile or dangerous foreign immigrants, gave government power to deport or imprison immigrants in times of hostilities and in times of peace
Limited the freedom of Press and Speech of the citizens. If a citizen "bad mouthed" the government they were imprisoned and fined.
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
written to nullify alien and sedition acts
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
area west of the Appalachian Mountains where settlers went looking for a "better life"
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Advisory council for the president consisting of the heads of the executive departments, the vice president, and a few other officials selected by the president.
3rd President of the United States , He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
In 1775 George Washington ordered him, the nation's first secreatry of war, to bring the British artillery back to the siege of Boston that was captured at Fort Ticonderoga.
1808 and 1812; Democratic-Republican; notable events include the War of 1812, let the charter of the First Bank of the United States expire, but realized it was difficult to finance a war without the bank, so he chartered the 2nd Bank of the United States
Citizens entitled to rights not listed in the Constitution
Powers Reserved to the States
1789 act that created the federal court, and establish attorney general as a position
1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, negotiated with British for Washington
Funding at Par
Alexander Hamilton's policy of paying off all federal bonds at face value in order to strengthen the national credit
Assumption of State Debts
Plan by Hamilton meant to tie the states more securely to fed gov; states pay debt, created huge national debt, assumption bill. logrolling - one support another
taxes put in place on imported goods; first tariff in america
A tariff designed to shield domestic producers of a good or service from the competition of foreign producers
tax on domestic items like whiskey
Bank of US
The central bank of the nation designed to facilitate the issuance of a stable national currency and to provide a convenient means of exchange for the people. The bank was responsible for providing the nation economic stability.
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are
Did America appear to have a bright future in 1789? Explain.
George Washington was our country's first President, which makes him historically very important. He established the executive and judicial branches of the federal government of the US. He set the standard for future Presidents. The Cabinet First financial system Things he signed- Judiciary Act of 1789 Postal Service Act Treaty of Greenville Militia Law of 1792
What important steps were taken by the first congress?
The actions of the 1st Congress are sometimes regarded as persuasive evidence of what the U.S. Constitution means.
How did Alexander Hamilton's economic plans lead to the District of Columbia?
After six months of debate, Hamilton, Jefferson and Madison met and worked out the Compromise of 1790. The capital would move permanently to Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia).
Explain Hamilton's overall economic plan for America.
1. Bolster national credit: Urged Congress to assume the debts of the states and fund the national debt at par. By assuming the debt it would become a national obligation and force the states into a bond with the federal govt. as well as unite the states.
2. Funding at par: The federal govt. would pay off its debts at face value + intreats.
How did the issue of the Bank of the United States reveal a difference in understanding about the Constitution between Jefferson and Hamilton?
Hamilton devised a Bank of the United States, with the right to establish branches in different parts of the country. Jefferson advocated a decentralized agrarian republic. He did not want a strong central government.
Why did political parties develop during George Washington's presidency? Were they good or bad?
The first political parties in the U.S. after the Revolutionary War developed as a result of the debate over ratifying the Constitution. They were the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists,
In what way did the French Revolution expose the differing views of Democratic-Republicans and Federalists?
Federalist worried the American republicans could replicate the horrible French Revolution and some people believed the the Democratic Republicans had similar views as the radicalists in the French Revolution.
Explain the reasoning for and against Washington's Neutrality Proclamation.
This was a proclamation made by George Washington that assured America would remain neutral in the war between Britain and France. Since Washington did not want to get into the war, he remained neutral. It angered many Jeffersonians (the pro-French who thought that they should fight with them).
How did the British actions towards Native Americans and American merchant ships incite many Americans?
Britain was responsible for external matters like foreign affairs, trade, Native American affairs. To the colonists, the Stamp Act violated their right not to be taxed without representation; it undermined the independence.
Did John Jay betray American interests in Jay's Treaty?
ay's treaty was between the United States and Great Britain to regulate commerce and navigation. It corrected problems arising from violations of the Treaty of Paris of 1793. Americans were outraged by Jay's Treaty. Many Americans even burned effigies of John Jay as a reaction to it.
What handicaps did John Adams face as he became president?
What french actions brought America close to war in the closing years of the 18th century?
The French Revolution began in 1789 with the convocation of the Estates-General in May. Several times between 1898 and 1914 the economic rivalry in Africa between France and Great Britain, and between Germany on one side and France and Great Britain on the other, almost precipitated a European war.
How did avoiding war with France hurt John Adams' political career?
ecause Americans were pretty darn mad at the French, and felt like what was going on was cause for war, so they were upset with President Adams for not letting America join the fight against France.
Explain the reasons for the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien & Sedition Acts
The Sedition Act effectively made it a crime for any person to criticize the President, the Congress or the Government of the United States.
The Alien Act empowered President Adams to arrest, detain, and deport any non-citizen he found to be a danger to the security of the nation.
Which was more dangerous to the US Constitution: the Alien and Sedition Acts or the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions? Explain.
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions condemned the Sedition Act as a violation of the Free Speech Clause to the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. In 1798, the Federalist-controlled Congress passed four acts to empower the president of the United States to expel dangerous Aliens from the country; to give the president authority to arrest, detain, and more.
What were some key differences between Federalists and Democratic Republicans?
The Federalist Party believed in a strong national (federal) government with powers over the state governments. The Democratic-Republicans believed that states should have more power than the national government. This is known as the States' Rights theory..
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