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Terms in this set (49)
How many stages are there in cell Division and what are they?
2. Mitosis and Cytokinesis
The division of the nucleus
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46 (23 pairs)
When are chromosomes copied?
Before cell division in S phase.
What is a chromatid and what are they attached by?
Identical sister chromatid that is attached by a centromere= chromosome
What only happens in your somatic cells?
46 chromosomes duplicated= 46 double sided chromosome(92 chromations ) = 2 cells with 46 chromosomes in each
What only happens in your gamete cells?
46 chromosomes duplicated =92 double sided chromosomes=2 cells with 46 chromosomes= 4 cells with 23 chromosome
why does meiosis happen?
Because the male and female combine creating a cell with 46 chromosomes
What is the order of the interphase?
G1, S, G2, M
What is the order of mitotic phase?
Prophase, pro-metaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
What happens in G1 phase?
The cell grows
What happens in S phase?
DNA is replicated
What happens in G2 phase?
The organelles replicate, more enzymes are made, and more ATP is made
What happens in interphase?
Cell grows and prepares to divide
What happens in prophase?
Centrioles appear, Microtubules are made, Chromosomes form and are still in the nucleus.
What happens in pro-metaphase?
Chromosomes become fully formed(condensed?) Nucleus is starting to disappear(broken down in G2?) Centriole Moves to opposite ends
Spindle fibers begin to attach to centromere
What happens in metaphase?
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. Nucleus is completely gone.
What happens in anaphase?
Sister chromatids split and move to either pole (Disjunction)
What happens in telophase?
Spindle fibers disappear and chromosomes uncoil into tangle of chromatin. Nucleus comes back. Centrioles is digested by a protein.
What happens in cytokinesis?
The cytoplasm pinches in half. Each daughter cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes. Happens in telophase.
How do plants do cytokinesis?
They build a wall in between the cells. They never disconnect. Looks like a brick wall
How does bacteria do cell Division?
The dna is replicated which is then followed by cytokinesis.
What are the three major checkpoints of the cell?
M, G2, and G1.
What do the checkpoint in the cell do?
They stop a bad cell from becoming 2 cells and so on.
Type of disease that bypasses the checkpoints?
What is a diploid cell?
Both sets of chromosomes (46)
What is a haploid cell?
a cell that contains one set of chromosomes(23)
What is meiosis?
Same as mitotic phase except no interphase. Also it does everything twice.
WHat does meiosis do everything twice?
To get 23 chromosomes for reproduction.
What is nondisjunction?
Failure for chromosomes to separate properly in meiosis.
Why are our chromosomes genetically different?
The chromosomes crossover creating a combination of your mom and dad.
What is cyclin?
A protein that regulates the cell cycle (there are multiple different cyclins)
What is apoptosis?
The process of programmed cell death.
What does a malignant cell NOT do?
Form benign tumors
The rate at which materials enter and leave the cell depends on the cells _____?
What are 3 reasons the cell has to divide?
The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA. A larger cell is less efficient in moving nutrients and waste materials across the cell membrane. But as a cell increases in size, its DNA does not. If a cell were to grow too large, an "information crisis" would occur.
What is produced during meiosis?
When does the process of crossing over happen in meiosis?
What is a homologous chromosome?
a maternal and paternal chromosome that is the same length and have genes that code for the same characteristics.
one of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis
non-sex chromosomes 44 of them
The two that aren't autosomes. XY-boy. XX-girl
What type of cell is produced in meiosis?
What is a tetrad?
A pair of homologous chromosomes
What is chiasmata?
The point where chromosomes crossover.
What happens in the end of meiosis 1?
Homologous chromosomes are separated.
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