Delta Module 1 Preparatory Course - Methods and Approaches
Terms in this set (43)
A way of teaching in which learners study grammar and translate words and texts into their own language. They do not practise communication and there is little focus on speaking. A teacher presents a grammar rule and vocabulary lists and then learners translate a written text from their own language into the second language or vice versa. There's heavy use of L1.
E.g.: translating the bible into other languages
One element that is still used today: authentic materials.
The Direct Method
A method in which grammar rules are not taught, only the target language is used in the classroom and translation is avoided at all costs. It uses pure inductive approach: language usually comes from a dialogue followed by questions and answers . There is no tolerance for errors. Writing and reading are taught only after speaking (main focus on speaking and listening).
E.g. Berlitz method, Callan method.
One element that is still used today: grammar is taught inductively, cultural elements
This is a method of foreign language teaching where the emphasis is on learning grammatical and phonological structure, especially for speaking and listening. It is based on behaviourism and so relies on formation of habits as a basis for learning, through a great deal of mechanical repetition (dialogues & pattern practice). Learners are seen as stimulus-response mechanisms whose learning was a direct result of repetitive practice. Teacher is the primary source of language and there's a strong emphasis on error correction.
One element that is still used today: drilling, positive reinforcement, automaticity
Total Physical Response (TPR)
A methodology/approach in which students respond to instructions/language with actions (in order to mediate / reinforce learning). It progresses from observation, to listening and responding, to speaking, which means a silent period is allowed and that reception comes before production. It is often associated with lower levels, young learners, and kinaesthetic learners.
E.g. The teacher says 'jump' and students jump, then students say 'jump' (if they're ready) and other students jump.
One element that is still used today: kinaesthetic activities
The Silent Way
This is a methodology of teaching language based on the idea that teachers should be as silent as possible during a class and work as a facilitator. Learners should be encouraged to speak as much as possible, discover or create rather than remember and repeat what is to be learned. Learning is made easier by problem-solving using the target language. The teacher uses physical objects such as cuisenaire rods, fidel charts or the phonemic chart to guide students.
One element that is still used today: use of phonemic chart
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
An approach to teaching and practising language which is based on the principle that learning a language successfully involves communication (communicative competence) rather than just memorising a series of rules. Teachers try to focus on meaningful communication, through the use of integrated skills, where both fluency and accuracy are important. Use of pair and group work and free use of language are typical elements of a lesson.
An approach in which the syllabus is organised around abstract concepts, meanings and ideas (the notions) AND the exponents used to express them (the functions), not grammar. It is associated with the work of David Wilkins in the 1970s.
E.g. headings in a syllabus would be: duration; location; degree; direction; the past; age; ability; possibility; permission; agreeing/disagreeing; etc.
One element that is still used today: most modern coursebooks have functional elements
Task Based Learning (TBL)
A way of teaching in which the teacher gives learners meaningful tasks to do, based on a model. Tasks need to be real-life. After this the teacher may ask learners to think about the language they used while doing the tasks, but the main focus for learners is on carrying out the task itself.
One element that is still used today: tasks must be based on situations students might encounter in the real world
The Lexical Approach
An approach to teaching language that focuses on lexical items or chunks such as words, multi-word units, collocations and fixed expressions rather than grammatical structures. Based on on the work of Michael Lewis.
The Natural Approach
This is an approach which does away with grammar and emphasizes the idea of exposure and the lowering of affective or emotional barriers to learning. Communication is seen as the primary function of language. Necessary for the process of "acquisition" to take place is the type of "input" the learner receives. Input must be comprehensible, slightly above the learner's present level of competence, interesting, relevant, not grammatically sequenced, in sufficient quantity, and experienced in low-anxiety contexts. Based on Krashen's ideas
One element that is still used today: lower affective filter, use of authentic materials, and comprehensible input.
Community Language Learning
This is a way of teaching where discussions are recorded and afterwards students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn. The teacher acts as a counsellor and a paraphraser, while the learner acts as a collaborator. The teacher needs to speak the L1 in order to help students. Grammar is not taught - learners work with functions.
It was created to help those in specific situations - oppressed or traumatized. E.g. Cuban grandmothers living in Miami, learning from one of them who speaks English.
One element that is still used today: lessons are student-centred, use of functional language.
Dogme / Teaching Unplugged
This is a communicative approach to language teaching that encourages teaching that is materials light (i.e. without published textbooks) and focuses instead on conversational communication among learners and teacher. It has its roots in an article by Scott Thornbury.
One element that is still used today: focus on communication and emergent language.
An approach to teaching language in which the examples are given first and the rules are worked out from those examples. The communicative approach makes use of this, so that learners can unconsciously devise rules about how different aspects of language work.
An approach to teaching language which starts with the presentation of rules and then illustrates those rules with examples. Learners are then asked to apply the rules in practice activities. The grammar translation method made heavy use of this.
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)
A method that integrates language instruction with subject matter instruction in the target language, for example, studying science, social studies
or mathematics through the medium of English.
The set of beliefs on which that teaching is based. The beliefs cover what language is, how it is used and learnt. From these beliefs a set of teaching practices are built. This term and method are sometimes used interchangeably, but this is more commonly used nowadays, perhaps because it implies a less rigid set of teaching practices than method.
A technique used by teachers to make students aware of features of language or of language learning strategies.
Courses which involve a face-to-face, in-class element as well as some online learning.
This refers to an ability to communicate that depends not just on linguistic ability but also sociolinguistic ability, including appropriate use of language, management of discourse and recognising cultural practices in communication.
This term is used to refer to syllabus, learning objectives, methods of assessment, teaching methods and materials.
This a teaching technique in which the teacher asks the students to repeat several times items of language that they are learning. These can be vocabulary, structures, sounds or functions.
An approach to teaching and learning which does not adhere to any one recognised approach but selects from different approaches and methods according to teacher preference and also to the belief that different learners learn in different ways and different contexts, and that therefore no one approach or method is sufficient to cater for a range of learners.
Elicitation, to elicit (n./v.)
A classroom technique whereby the teacher asks a series of questions to which s/he knows the answers. The teacher uses this technique either to find out what the learners already know, or to encourage them to think more deeply about something and to tentatively work their way towards new knowledge.
Focus on form
This approach to teaching language was first defined by Michael Long as follows: 'focus on form...overtly draws students' attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in lessons whose overriding focus is on meaning or communication'.
This refers to a technique for developing students' grammatical competence. The technique involves dictating a text to students at normal speed while students copy down what they can of what they hear, leaving gaps for the parts they have not been able to write down for whatever reason. Then the students in pairs or groups compare what they have written and try and complete their version of the text. The teacher may choose to then repeat this process. At the end students are given a copy of the original text to compare with their text and discuss the differences. The thinking behind grammar dictation is that it encourages students to think about both meaning and grammar, and make grammatical choices based on working out intended meanings.
This is a teaching technique in which students are given key words, e.g. from a dialogue or text that have just read or are about to read, and asked to add 'grammar' words to these key words to produce a text that makes sense. Behind this technique is Diana Larsen-Freeman's idea of 'grammaring', the skill of relating form and structure to meaningful units.
This is an approach to teaching language in which learners are presented with examples of language and prompted or asked leading questions in order to work out what the rule of use is, or what grammatical patterning underlies the examples. This is closely related to an inductive approach to teaching.
The input hypothesis
This is the idea developed particularly by Stephen Krashen that language is acquired by exposure to language that is of interest to the learner and that is made up of a level of lexis and grammar slightly above that of the learner's (comprehensible input).
This a recognised and acknowledged set of teaching techniques and procedures that put into practice a set of beliefs about teaching and learning. It tends to be more rigid than an approach, although they are sometimes used interchangeably.
The typical practices, procedures and techniques that a teacher uses in the classroom, and that may or may not be based on a particular method.
The Monitor Hypothesis
This is one of the five hypotheses that make up Krashen's input hypothesis. Krashen suggests that when a learner is monitoring their use of language, they are focusing on accuracy and inhibiting acquisition. In this use monitoring means the learner checking and evaluating their own language output, as they produce it, whether it be speaking or writing.
Test Teach Test (TTT)
This is a way of teaching language which puts students in a situation where they need to use the target language so he/she can judge whether they know it or not, to what degree they know it and to make the students aware of their need for it. The teacher then presents the target language and gives the students activities in which they are encouraged to use it. The thinking behind this is that students shouldn't be spoon-fed with language they may not really need or want, and that creating a need leads to greater motivation to learn and better language learning.
These are learning opportunities that arise during the lesson. They may have been predicted by the teacher when planning the lesson, but very often have not - they arise from the communication that occurs between the students or the teacher and students and are frequently unpredictable. However, because they arise from what the learners themselves want to say, if focused on, they have a high probability of being "noticed" and retained.
A theory of learning which argues that all behaviour could be explained by observable factors - it was unnecessary to refer to mental processes.
Concept Check Questions (CCQs)
These are questions asked by the teacher, or included in materials, to find out whether the learners have understood the meaning/use of a new grammatical or lexical item which has just been introduced.
The Critical Period Hypothesis
This hypothesis suggests that there is a period in childhood when language acquisition can take place effortlessly and naturally, but that after adolescence the brain is no longer able to process language in this way.
English for Specific Purposes (ESP)
This refers to a situation where a learner has a particular need for the language, and follows a course which aims to meet that need without including any language which is irrelevant to it.
English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
This term is used to refer to a situation where a learner is learning English, usually in his or her own country, for purposes other than living in an English speaking country or because it will be the medium of instruction in his/her current or future studies in other subjects.
English as an International Language (EIL) or
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)
These terms are used to describe a situation where English is being used as a means of communication between two or more participants who do not share a common first language.
The Silent Period
This is an idea stemming from Krashen's Input Hypothesis that learners in the earliest stages of language learning need a time when they just listen to and assimilate the target language, before they are ready to produce it.
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
This is one of the five hypotheses that make up Krashen's input hypothesis. He proposed the idea that negative affective factors, e.g. emotions and psychological states like motivation, depression, fear, self-esteem, enthusiasm etc would cause a "filter " in the brain to be raised and to block learning/acquisition from taking place, while positive affective factors would cause it to be lowered, facilitating intake.
An ordered sequence of techniques.
Presentation Practice Production (PPP)
A procedure which refers to three stages in a language lesson, particularly one that is grammar-based.
a) presentation stage: the introduction of new items, when their meanings are explained, demonstrated;
b) practice stage: new items are practised, either individually or in groups. Practice activities usually move from controlled to less controlled practice;
c) production stage: students use the new items more freely, with less or little control by the teacher.