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US History Chapter 1 Vocab.

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anthropologist
scientist who studies the physical characteristics and cultures of humans and their ancestors
archeologists
Scientists who learn about early people by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements.
artifacts
object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced
pre-Columbian
objects or articles that are from the period of time before 1500 A.D.
migration
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
Paleo-Indians
the ancient peoples of the Americas who were present at the end of the last Ice Age.
hunter-gatherers
people who hunt animals and gather wild plants to provid thier needs
domestication
the taming of animals for human use, such as work or as food
civilizations
a complex, organized society that has advanced cities, a government, religion, record keeping and writing, job specialization, social classes, and arts and architecture
Mesoamerica
"Middle America" the region extending from modern-day Mexico through Central America
Olmecs
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
glyphic writing
use of symbols and images to express words and ideas
Mayas
The Indians of one of the most advanced early civilizations of the Western Hemisphere; made their home in Central America.
Aztecs
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
tribute
something given or done as an expression of esteem
empire
a group of countries under a single authority, or a rule of foreign territory
Incas
Ancient civilization (1200-1500AD) that was located in the Andes in Peru
Anasazi
a Native American who lived in what is now southern Colorado and Utah and northern Arizona and New Mexico and who built cliff dwellings
social classes
groups with different levels of importance
slash-and-burn farming
the practice of burning brush and debris to enhance the quality of soil for farming
ecology
the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment
technology
tools and skills people use to meet their basic needs
shaman
an ancient doctor, healer, or priest, they were called upon for religious ceremonies