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WCU Psy 363 Gans Exam 2
Terms in this set (88)
Experimentally induced neurosis
an abnormal behavioral condition produced in an artificial laboratory setting. The subject is typically placed in a problem solving or discernment scenario they cannot solve because it is too difficult or impossible. This can result in erratic altered behavior that mimics a mental disorder.
In Vivo Flooding
Fear of balloons? Fill room with
balloons. Client enters the room, closes the door, and
remains inside for an hour or more. Fear is eliminated after
a few sessions.
Increased response to the conditioned stimulus over time/multiple trials
Weakening of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone
A presentation of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
Presenting the conditioned stimulus alone in between acquisition trials. Demonstrates that Classical Conditioning has occured.
Refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay.
After being extinguished, a CS can be
associated with a US more quickly than
A phenomenon that occurs when an organism behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another way in its absence.
The transfer of a learned response from one stimulus to another, similar stimulus. i.e. if you learn be afraid of a light you may be afraid of all lights.
Learning to respond to one stimulus but not to another, similar stimulus. Afraid of a white light but not a yellow light.
Shows the relationship between the degree of change in the original conditioning stimulus and response strength
Higher Order Conditioning
Pair CS with a new CS after conditioning -
New CS will elicit CR. First CS US pairing then CS-CS
Shows that stimuli can become associated with each other in the absence of an identifiable response. Pair two CS's then condition one of them. CS-CS pairing then CS-US pairing.
When certain, often more intense, stimuli more readily cause conditioning than others presented at the same time.
Presence of established CS interferes with the conditioning of new CS. Present one CS with the US then new CS cannot be conditioned.
When one stimulus elicits a response in the
presence of another stimulus.
a technical term used in classical conditioning to refer to the observation that a familiar stimulus takes longer to acquire meaning (as a signal or conditioned stimulus) than a new stimulus. CS-preexposure effect.
Stimulus Substitution Theory
According to Pavlov, conditioning does not involve the acquisition of any new behavior, but rather the tendency to respond in old ways to new stimuli. Thus, he theorized that the CS merely substitutes for the US in evoking the reflex response.
CR prepares organism for presentation of US
a-process/b-process. An autonomic response opposite in direction to the effect
Only so much associative value available to be distributed. There is a limit to the amount of conditioning which can occur. Depends on the type and or amount of US and CS. Stronger CS allows more learning to take place.
Reduces the attractiveness of the desired event by associating it with an aversive stimulus.
the strength of a stimulus response linkage as measured by the frequency with which a stimulus elicits a particular response.
Implicit Fear Learning
Level of emotional reactivity, usually genetically
Disposition to learn certain types of behaviors or
certain types of associations more easily
Strengthening of conditioned fear response as a result of brief exposures to an aversive CS.
Increase in one's reactivity to potentially fearful stimulus following exposure to an unrelated stressful event (Example: divorce and fear of traffic)
Classical Treatment for Phobias. Process succession of stimuli that elicit increasing levels of fear. Invlovles relaxation training, a hierarchy of fear-eliciting scenes, and pairing relaxation with the scenes.
CS that elicits one type of response is associated with an event that elicits an incompatible response. A functional analytic principle that is part of behavior analysis, and involves the conditioning of an unwanted behavior or response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior or response by the association of positive actions with the stimulus.
An occurrence of one response can be inhibited by the occurrence of an incompatible response. The technique is used especially for treating phobias, where a state incompatible with anxiety (such as anger or relaxation) is evoked at the same time as an anxiety-provoking stimulus is presented. A new response to the stimulus is thereby learned.
Classical treatment for phobias which involves prolonged exposure to a feared stimulus providing the maximal opportunity for conditioned fear response to be extinguished.
The phenomenon in which some people experience a benefit after the administration of an inactive substance or sham treatment.
Changing the amount of the US will change the amount of the CS.
Client asked to visualize, as clearly as
possible, a scenario involving the feared event. The greater the level of fear induced by the visualized scenario, the better!
Conditioned compensatory response
An automatic response that the body and mind experience that is opposite of the effects of alcohol. According to the school of empathetic counseling, a conditioned behavior is a large part of drug addiction. This, paired with unconditioned stimuli, supports the addiction.
Behaviorists want to see _____________, ____________ behavior in order to have a scientific approach to psychology
How much learning happens on trial 3?
States that the laws of learning should not vary with the use of particular stimuli, responses, or reinforcements.
True or False? Many people with phobias are unable to recall any particular conditioning event before the development of their symptoms.
Can be more effective in treating phobias than systematic desensitiaztion or flooding alone.
Virtual Reality Exposure Theraoy (VRET)
Adds a level of control to exposure therapy by being able to change or sustain the type and intensity of stimuli presented.
relapse prevention training
A person learns to identify and cope with situations in which there is a high risk of resuming the problematic behavior.
Aversion therapy sometimes carried out with imaginal stimuli rather than real stimuli.
How does classical conditioning fit into drug addiction? Drug = US High = UR. CS everything else around you, CR - preparedness for doing drugs. Multiple associations with "cues"
a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. It is also a procedure that is used to bring about such learning.
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Are animals "intelligent"?
Extent to which
consequences of a behavior
are satisfying or annoying
determine whether the
behavior will be repeated
Example: After repeated
trials, cat gets food more
Skinner's Selection by
Two categories of behaviors: Involuntary/Reflexive Behaviors-can be classically conditioned Operant Behaviors- voluntary and controlled by consequences
"Free operant" procedure
rat freely responds particular behavior e.g. pressing a lever) for food at any rate
"the overall type of learning in which operant conditioning resides" A learning process in which behavior is modified by the reinforcing or inhibiting effects of the resulting consequences.
The Law of Effect
Behavior is controlled by its consequences
- responses that are followed by pleasant or
satisfying stimuli will be strengthened and will
occur more often in the future.
- Moment of reinforcement is moment of
- The specific bodily position and the muscle
movements occurring at the moment of
reinforcement will have a higher probability of
occurring on the next trial.
behaviors influenced by
effect of consequences upon behavior
Applied Behavior Analysis
a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change a behavior of social significance.
Three term contigency
The famous behavioral scientist B. F. Skinner believed that, in order to experimentally analyze human and animal behavior, each behavioral act can be broken down into an antecedent, behavior, and consequence.
A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced.
consequences which increase behavior
the removal of an adverse stimulus to increase behavior
biological. Food, drink, and pleasure are the principal examples
is any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future.
Taking away a certain desired item after the undesired behavior happens in order to decrease future responses.
Cessation of a desire or need by the satisfaction of that desire or need. The short-term waning of a reinforcer's efficacy after it has been presented repetitively.
a lack or deprivation that is going to energize a drive or an aroused state.
These are, like most human reinforcers, conditioned. Examples include money, grades in schools, and tokens.
learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus is paired with a previously neutral stimulus.
True or False: Increasing the intensity of the stimulus decreases the rate of conditioning.
consists of two or more stimuli that are presented and withdrawn as a unit.
Stimulus Substitution Theory
A critical problem with this theory is that the CR and UR are not always the same. Pavlov himself observed that a dog's saliva produced as a CR differed in composition from that produced as a UR. The CR is sometimes even the opposite of the UR.
That which is going to reduce a need
refers to a decrease in the response potential of an asymptotic excitatory target CS (X) as a result of pairing X with the unconditioned stimulus (US) in the presence of a second asymptotic signal for the US
procedure in which 2 neutral stimuli are paired, after which 1 is repeatedly paired with a US
preparatory response theory
the purpose of the CR is to prepare the organism for the presentation of the US
What are the four pieces of knowledge that Rescorla and Wagner based their theory of conditioning on?
the claim that we can classically condition all CSs equally well to all UCSs
teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations
hierarchy of imaginary scenes
Part of systematic desensitization procedures which involves the creation of scenes which elicit progressively more intense levels of fear.
aversion therapy carried out with the use of imaginal stimuli rather than real stimuli
antagonistic drug therapy
Treatment of narcotic addiction by using a medication that is opposed to opiates or any other drug to which a person is addicted.
apparatus built by Thorndike in which cats would be placed and try to escape
a box that delivers food to animals with a lever to press or disk to peck
four basic contingencies in learning
The maximum associative value of the US
the vividness of a stimulus relative to its neighbors
the salience of the us and cs respectively
rescorla wagner equation
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