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AP Stats Chapter 9
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Terms in this set (14)
alternative hypothesis (Ha)
the claim about the population that we are trying to find evidence for
hawthorne effect
the fact that almost any change in the work environment together with knowledge that a study is under way will produce a short-term productivity increase
null hypothesis (Ho)
the claim tested by a statistical test. the test is designed to assess the strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis
one-sided alternative hypothesis
the alternative hypothesis is one-sided if it states that a parameter is larger than the null hypothesis value or if it states that the parameter is smaller than the null value
p-value
the probability, computed assuming Ho is true, that the statistic would take a value as extreme as or more extreme than the one actually observed
paired data
study designs that involve making two observations on the same individual, or one observation on each of two similar individuals, result in paired date
paired t procedures
when paired data result from measuring the same quantitative variable twice, we can make comparisons by analyzing the differenced in each pair.
these methods are sometimes called paired t procedures
power
the power of a test against a specific alternative is the probability that the test will reject Ho at a chosen significance level (a) when the specified alternative value of the parameter is true
significance test
assesses the evidence provided by data about some claim concerning a population
statistically significant
when our p-value is less than the chosen significance level (a), the result is statistically significant
test statistic
measures how far a sample statistic diverges from what we would expect if the null hypothesis were true, in standardized units
test statistic = statistic - parameter/standard deviation of statistic
two-sided alternative hypothesis
the alternative hypothesis is two-sided if it states that the parameter is different from the null value
type I error
occurs if Ho is rejected when Ho is true
type II error
occurs if Ho is not rejected when Ho is false
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