65 terms

Ch. 5 US History

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Great Plains
grasslands in west-central portion of the U.S.
Native American Living in the Great Plains
Tribes in the East: hunting, farming villages
Tribes in the West: nomadic hunting, gathering
Role of buffalo
provides many basic needs:
- hides used for teepees, clothes, blankets
- meat used for jerky, pemmican(meat mixed with berries and fat)
The Horse
-Addition of Horses from Spanish Mexico and guns lead most Plains tribes to live a nomadic life by mid-1700s
-Trespassing others' hunting lands causes war; "counting coup" which helped Natives gain status
Family Life of Native Americans
• Form family groups with ties to other bands that speak same language
• Men are hunters, warriors; women butcher meat, prepare hides
• Children learn behavior and culture through myths, stories, games, good examples
• Communal life (everything shared); leaders rule by counsel, not force.
Native Americans believe in
• Believe in powerful spirits that control natural world- men or women can become shamans (communicate with spirits)
Culture Clash btw whites and Natives
• Native Americans: land cannot be owned; settlers: want to own land
• Settlers think natives forfeited land because they did not improve it
• Since whites considered land unsettled, migrants go west to claim it
The Promise of Silver and Gold
• 1858 discovery of gold in Colorado draws tens of thousands
• Mining camps, tiny frontier towns have filthy, ramshackle dwellings
• Fortune seekers of different cultures, races; mostly men
Railroads Influence Government Policy
-1834, government designates Great Plains as one huge reservation
-1850s, treaties define specific boundaries for each tribe
Massacre at Sand Creek
-Troops kill over 150 innocent Cheyenne, Arapaho at Sand Creek winter camp.
-Started the Indian Wars
Death on the Bozeman Trail
• Bozeman Trail crosses Sioux hunting grounds- Red Cloud asks the government for end of white settlements; but was denied so Crazy Horse ambushes troops (over 80 killed)
Treaty of Fort Laramie
U.S. Bozeman finally closes trail to settlement; But Sioux must move to reservation. Sitting Bull does not sign this treaty
Sitting Bull
-leader of Hunkpapa Sioux
-at Little Bighorn after he has a vision of war he and Crazy Horse, Gall crush Custer's troops
-By late 1876, Sioux are defeated; some take refuge in Canada - people starving; so Sitting Bull surrenders 1881
-Later killed by the Indian Police in 1890
George Custer
-reports much gold in Black Hills, gold rush begins
-was killed in Custer's Last Stand/Little Bighorn by Indian tribes
Battle of Little Bighorn
-1876, Sitting Bull has vision of war at sun dance after he has a vision of war he and Crazy Horse, Gall crush Custer's troops
- also called Custers last stand
A Century of Dishonor
A book written exposing govt.'s broken Promises to native Americans
Assimilation
natives to give up way of life, join white culture
General Philip Sheridan
-At the Red River War 1868-69 he attacked the Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Comanche tribes in their winter quarters, taking their supplies and livestock and killing those who resisted, driving the rest back into their reservations.
-Professional hunters, trespassing on Indian land, killed over 4 million bison by 1874, and Sheridan applauded: "Let them kill, skin and sell until the buffalo is exterminated"
Dawes Act
1887 to "Americanize" natives, break up reservations
- gives land to individual Native Americans
- sell remainder of land to settlers
- money from sale to buy farm implements for natives
-In the end, Natives Americans receive only 1/3 of land, no money
The Destruction of the Buffalo
• Destruction of buffalo most significant blow to tribal life
• Tourists, fur traders shoot for sport, destroy buffalo population (65 million reduced to 1000)
Wounded Knee
Ghost Dance—ritual to regain lost lands
- spreads among Sioux on Dakota reservation Local residents of South Dakota demanded that the Sioux end the ritual of the Ghost Dance. When they were ignored, the United States Army was called for assistance.
• Seventh Cavalry takes about 350 Sioux to Wounded Knee Creek - demanded they give up all Weapons
-A shot was fired - cavalry kill 300 unarmed Native Americans
-Ended the Indian Wars and Sioux dream of regaining old life
Vaqueros and Cowboys
American settlers learn to manage large herds from Mexican vaqueros
- adopt way of life, clothing, vocabulary (p.208-209)
Texas longhorns
—sturdy, short-tempered breeds brought by Spanish
Cowboys not in demand until
railroads reach Great Plains
Growing Demand for Beef
After Civil War demand for meat increases in rapidly growing cities
The Cow Town
Cattlemen establish shipping yards where trails and rail lines meet
Chisholm Trail
becomes major cattle route from San Antonio to Kansas
A Day's Work
-1866-1885, up to 55,000 cowboys on plains - 25% African American, 12% Mexican
-Cowboy works 10-14 hours on ranch; 14 or more on trail
-Expert rider, roper; alert for dangers that may harm, upset cattle
Roundup
-During spring roundup, longhorns found, herded into corral
-Separate cattle marked with own ranch's brand; brand calves
Long drive
-Herding of animals or long drive lasts about 3 months
-Cowboy in saddle dawn to dusk; sleeps on ground; bathes in rivers
Legends of the West
Celebrities like "Wild Bill" Hickok, Calamity Jane never handled cows
Changes in Ranching
-Overgrazing, bad weather from 1883 to 1887 destroy whole herds
- Ranchers keep smaller herds that yield more meat per animal
-Ranchers fence land with barbed wire; turn open range into separate ranches
Homestead Act
offers 160 acres free to any head of household
- 1862-1900, up to 600,000 families settle
Building of Transcontinental Railroad
-1850-1871, huge land grants to railroads for laying track in West
-1860s, Central Pacific goes east, Union Pacific west, meet in Utah
-By 1880s, 5 transcontinental railroads completed
-Railroads sell land to farmers, attract many European immigrants
Exodusters
Southern African-American settlers in Kansas
Government Support for Settlement
-Railroad, state agents, speculators profit; 10% of land to families
-Government strengthens act, passes new legislation for settler
-1889 - Oklahoma Sooners (settled in the unassigned lands before declared open for settlement)
The Closing of the Frontier
-1872, Yellowstone National Park created to protect some wilderness
- 1890s, no frontier left; some regret loss of unique American feature
Soddy
sod home by stacking blocks of turf
Dugouts
Few trees, so many settlers dig homes into sides of ravines or hills (dugouts)
Women's Work
Basically alone, must be self-sufficient. Do mens work, harvesting. Plowing, shearing sheep. Do traditional work: canning vegetables, carding wool. Work for communities—sponsor schools, churches
Technical Support for Farmers
-Mass market for farm machines develops with migration to plains (Deere plow, McCormick reaper)
Morrill Act
1862, 1890 finances agricultural colleges
1887 Hatch Act
creates agricultural experiment stations to inform farmers of new developments
Farmers in debt
-1885-1890 droughts bankrupt single-crop operations
-Rising cost of shipping grain pushes farmers into debt
Bonanza farm
huge, single-crop spreads
Oliver Hudson Kelley
1867 starts Patrons of Husbandry or Grange
Mary Elizabeth Lease
Leader of the populist movement
Farmers' Alliances
groups of farmers and sympathizers
- lectures on interest rates, government control of railroads, banks- gain over 4 million members
Grange
Also known as Patrons of Husbandry, which provided education and socialization for farmers, but eventually they ended up fighting the railroads
Economic Distress
-Farmers buy more land to grow more crops to pay off debts
-After Civil War, government takes greenbacks out of circulation
-Debtors have to pay loans in dollars worth more than those borrowed
-Prices of crops fall dramatically (wheat $2.00 to .68)
-1870s, debtors push government to put more money in circulation
1878 Bland-Allison Act—
-money supply increase not enough for farmers
-Act required the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars
-reintroduced the bimetallic monetary policy of the U.S., but it led to greater disruption in the economy
Populism
movement of the people; Populist
• 1892, Populist candidates elected at different levels of government- Democratic Party eventually adopts platform
Populist Party wants reforms
-Economic: increase money supply, graduated income tax, federal loans
• Political: Senate elected by popular vote; single term for Pres. And VP., secret ballot; 8-hour day
Problems with the Railroads
-Lack of competition lets railroads overcharge to transport grain
-Farms mortgaged to buy supplies; suppliers charge high interest
The Panic of 1893
-Railroads expand faster than markets; some go bankrupt
-Government's gold supply depleted, leads to rush on banks- Stock market crashes
- 15,000 businesses, 500 banks collapse- panic becomes depression- 20% unemployment
Political divisions also regional:
- Republicans: Northeast business owners, bankers=
- Democrats: Southern, Western farmers, laborers
Bimetallism
system using both silver and gold to back currency
Gold standard
backing currency with gold only
The gold/silver debate
Paper money considered worthless if cannot be exchanged for metal
-Silverites: bimetalism would create more money, stimulate economy
-Gold bugs: gold only would create more stable, if expensive currency
"Cross of Gold" Speech
A speech by William Jennings Bryan which recommended bimetallism and got him the democratic nomination for presidency
William McKinley
1896, Republicans commit to gold, select William McKinley as presidential candidate
William Jennings Bryan
Democrats favor bimetallism, choose William Jennings Bryan as presidential candidate. Populists endorse Bryan, choose own VP to maintain party identity
The End of Populism
McKinley gets East, industrial Midwest; Bryan South, farm Midwest McKinley elected president;
Populism collapses; leaves legacy:
- the powerless can organize, have political impact
- agenda of reforms, many enacted in 20th century
1896 Presidential Election
McKinley elected president; Populism collapses
Mark Twain
Author who discussed the unlimited possibilities in the West