The exposure compensation control
A feature in your camera that allows you to adjust exposure without having to adjust shutter
speeds and apertures.
The auto, program, aperture-priority, shutter-priority, and manual exposure
Auto mode- sets both aperture and shutter speed for you. This will allow you to concentrate on
composition, lighting and action.
Program mode- sets the shutter speed and aperture just like auto mode, but also gives you access to more settings then you can access in Auto mode. Some cameras have a Program shift feature that allows you to cycle through a series of aperture/shutter speed combinations that offer equivalent
exposures. By choosing the right combination you can choose to emphasize depth of field
or capture motion.
Preset Exposure modes - are fully automatic, but each is designed for a specific situation such
as portraits, landscapes, night scenes, panoramas, and movies.
Shutter-priority mode - allows you to choose the shutter speed and the camera automatically sets
the aperture. Select this mode when you want to control the appearance of motion. You can select
a fast shutter speed to freeze the action or a slow shutter speed to blur it.
Aperture-priority mode allow you to select the aperture and the camera automatically sets the
shutter speed. Select this mode when control of depth of field is important. Select a small aperture
to make everything in your image sharp such as in a landscape. To keep the subject sharp
and blur out the background, select a large aperture.
Manual exposure mode - allows you to set both shutter speed and aperture. Select this mode
when the other modes cannot give you the results you want or when using studio lighting.
Shutter speed is measured in seconds.
The longer the shutter speed will expose the sensor to light for a longer time than a shorter shutter speed.
Shutter speeds can range from 30 seconds to 1/8000th of a second. Depending on you
The standard full stop shutter speeds are:
B, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/4000, 1/8000
B stands for bulb. Its a setting that the shutter will remain open as long as you hold down the
shutter button. This allows you to shoot exposures longer than 30 seconds.
Although speeds faster than one second are fractions most cameras display them without the
These shutter settings have been arranged in a sequence so that each setting lets half as much light as the next slowest setting and twice as much as the next fastest.
From 1/125 to 1/250 you have half of the time, and from 1/250 to 1/125 you double the time.
Many high end digital cameras have added two stops between each of the traditional ones. This
allows you to adjust exposure in one-third stop increments for finer exposure control.
In addition to controlling exposure, the shutter speed controls how motion will be recorded.
A longer shutter speed will blur a moving subject and the more likely you are to cause blur by
moving the camera slightly. A faster shutter speed will freeze a moving subject
The aperture can be opened up to let in more light and closed (stopped down) to let in less light.
The larger the aperture opening, the more light is allowed to reach the image sensor for a given
time. This will result in a lighter image.
Apertures settings are called f-stops and indicate the size of the aperture opening inside the lens.
Each f-stop lets in half as much as the next larger opening and twice as much as the next smaller
The standard lens f-stops are
f2.8, f4, f5.6, f8, f11, f16, f22. As the f-stop number gets larger, the smaller the aperture opening. If you went from f4 to f2.8 you double the amount of light.
Then, if you went from f8 to f11 you would have only half of the amount of light.
On some digital cameras, there may be one or two settings before the traditional stops. This
allows you to change the aperture in fine increments of 1/2 or 1/3 stops.
Aperture also controls depth of field.
A small lens opening will have greater depth of field.
which means that most of the image will be sharp. A larger lens opening will have narrow depth
of field which means less will be sharp.