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PVCC PSY 230 -Belsky Chapters 5-7
Terms in this set (76)
Piaget's 2nd stage of cognitive development, the level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols, age 2-7, marked by an inability to step back form one's immediate perceptions and think conceptually; children's perceptions are captured by their immediate appearances
in Piaget's conservation tasks, a tendency for the "preoperational" child to fixate on the most visually striking feature of an object or substance and not take other dimensions into account
in Piaget's conservation tasks, the concrete operational child's knowledge that a specific change in the way a given substance looks can be reversed.
Centering, Lack of conservation, Lack of reversibility, lack of identity constancy, animism, artificialism, egocentrism
Concrete Operation Stage
the third stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory, children 8-11, marked by the ability to reason about the world in a more logical, adult way - decentering, Conservation of liquid, mass, number, matter, Reversibility, Identity Constancy
The pre-operational child's inability to grasp that a person's core 'self' stays the same despite changes of external appearance - i.e. Mom cuts off her hair, Dad shaves his mustache/beard, Grandma dyes her gray hair
Piaget's theory, the preparation child's belief that inanimate objects are alive (trees, flowers, stuffed animals, etc.)
The preparation child's believe that human beings make everything in nature; the tendency to explain all events as being caused by the expenditure of human effort
in Piaget's theory the pre operational child's inability to understand that other people have points of view different from their own
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition. He believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning." Vygotsky is said to have developed a sociocultural approach to cognitive development.
Stages of cognitive development; cognitive theorist
Zone of Proximal Development
gap between a child's ability to solve a problem totally on their own, and his potential knowledge if taught by a more accomplished person.
The process of teaching new skills by entering a child's zone of proximal development and tailoring one's efforts that person's competence level.
Role of a mentor in Social Cognitive Development
children can learn by modeling behavior and learning to do for themselves as much as they can and then with some help by a mentor learn much more (bridging the gaps).
Information Processing Theory/Approach
describes the processing, storage and retrieval of knowledge in the mind.
the limited-capacity gateway system, containing all the material that we can keep in awareness at a single time. The material in this system is either processed/retained for more permanent storage or it is lost. (Information processing theory)
any frontal-lobe ability that allows us to inhibit our responses and to plan our direct thinking. (Information processing theory)
a learning strategy in which people repeat information to imbed it in memory (ABCs), the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it (Information processing theory)
The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others, filtering out & focusing on what is relevant. (Information processing theory)
Vygotsky - the way in by which human beings learn to relate their behavior and master cognitive challenges through silently repeating information or talking to themselves;
A form of internalized, self-directed dialogue (talking to oneself in silence);
internal dialogue, directed toward self (age 8 onward);
Vygotsky's term for thought, develops from private speech
an error in nearly language development in which young children apply the rules for plurals and past tenses even to exceptions, so that irregular forms sound like regular forms (goed/went, falled/fell, fishes/fish
an error in early language development where children apply verbal labels too broadly (all four legged animals are horseys, or dogs, all vehicles are trucks, etc, all colors are yellow)
an error in early language development in which young children apply verbal labels too narrowly: ex. a 3 year old may tell you he has a dog, but says all other dogs in neighborhood must be called something else. (associates a general term with something specific)
recollections f events and experiences that make up one's life history.
Theory of Mind
Children's first cognitive understanding which appears about age 4, that other people have different beliefs and perspectives of their own.
hiding toy test, hiding, person leaves, rehides toy, and under 4 child will say they will look in place B, and older child will know they will in the first spot A
a personality type that involves intense fear, social inhibition, and often depression
a personality type that involves action on one's immediate impulses and behaving disruptively and aggressively.
Initiative versus Guilt
Erikson's 3rd Stage of Pyschosocial stages, term for the preschool psychosocial task involving actively taking on life tasks, Early Childhood (3 - 6 years)
Known for his 8-stage theory of Psychosocial Development
Industry versus Inferiority
Middle childhood; Erikson's 4th Stage of Pyschosocial development, The period between early childhood and early adolescence, approximately from ages 6 to 11, or puberty; term for psychosocial task of middle-childhood involving managing our emotions and realizing that real-world success involves hard work.
a state that develops when a person feels incapable of affecting the outcome of events, and so gives up without trying.
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior;
socially desirable behavior that benefits others (Help, Comfort, Share - blossoms during toddlerhood)
feeling the exact emotion that another person is experiencing
a state necessary for acting prosocially, involving feeling upset for a person who needs help.
any hostile or destructive act
aggression used to achieve an explicit goal;
aggressive behavior that is deliberate and planned
acts designed to hurt our relationships;
nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person's psychological well-being
a hostile or destructive act carried out in response to being frustrated or hurt
the role of positive and negative reinforcement
in aggression; Bandura experiment
play that involves making up and acting out a scenario, also called pretend play
fantasy play in which children work together to develop and act out the scenes
Gender segregated play
play in which boys and girls associate only with members of their own sex, typical of childhood
play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds, repetitive motor activity (driving cars on mat)
play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something, blocks
Children simply watch each other play
children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together
Interact and share but no organization or common goals;
A form of play in which children engage in different activities but interact.
concerned with solving a problem by working together to achieve a common goal;
children play together, creating dramas or taking turns
gender schema theory
explanation for gender-stereotyped behavior that emphasizes the role of cognitions, specifically the idea that once children know their own gender label they will selectively watch and model their own sex
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
gender neutral parenting
Raising a child without gender stereotypes
1. authoritarian= coercive
2. permissive= un-restraining
*3. authoritative (ive-ove as in love)= supportive parenting - the best kind
slow growing; delayed timetable; open to environmental influence for a long period of time; synaptogenesis/pruning
bodies elongate and lengthen; legs are the last to grow
physical abilities (hand - fingers) (legs - feet)
fine motor skills
small, coordinated movements; refined lips, mouth, hands, fingers
gross motor skills
large muscle movements; hopping, jumping, running
throwing a ball
gross motor skills (throw with whole mass of arm); fine motor skills (start using shoulder, elbow, wrist and then fingers)
a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile compared to the U.S. norms established for children in the 1970s
increasing rate of childhood obesity
the prevalence of childhood obesity almost tripled during the 1980s, continued to rise slowly, and then declined slightly in 2011.
Piagetian tasks that involve changes the shape of a substance to see whether children can go beyond the way that substance visually appears to understand that the amount is still the same
In Piaget's conservation tasks, the concrete operational child's ability to look at several dimensions of an object or substance
the understanding that a general category can encompass several subordinate elements
examples of Piatetian conservation tasks
number (ex. pennies in two rows), mass (2 balls of clay), volume or liquid (2 glasses of water), matter (sugar cubes & water)
effective scaffolding techniques
1. foster a secure attachment, a nurturing, responsive interaction basic foundation for learning
2. break a larger cognitive challenge into manageable steps
3. continue helping until the child has fully mastered the concept before moving on
the meaning system of a language - that is, what the words stand for
the capacity to manage one's emotional state
the ability to observe our abilities and actions from an outside frame of reference and to reflect on our inner state; 3 year old: external facts, unrealistically positive; fourth grader: internal/psychological, anchored in feelings, deficiencies and strengths
tendency to feel good or bad about ourselves (major issue during elementary school)
1. love withdrawal - deny affection/attention
2. power assertion - insisting on compliance due to power
3. induction - best for developing; explaining why behavior is wrong, what be done to correct i, emphasizing how it affects others
4. best bet - combination dependent upon temperament and situation variations
children who rebound from serious early life traumas to construct successful adult lives
among immigrants, the tendency to become similar in attitudes and practices to the mainstream culture after time spent living in a new society
the use of physical force to discipline a child
any act that seriously endangers a child's physical or emotional well-being
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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