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Chapter 18 The Industrial Revolution
Terms in this set (44)
Oil and Steel
1859 nations first oil strike ... used for lubricants then refined to gasoline to power engines
1850 steel replaces iron because of Bessemer process Pitt steel capitl
American inventor best known for inventing the electric lightbulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Alexander Graham Bell
1876, developed a patent for the telephone ... instant communication across miles
American manufacturer, made the automobile available to everyone by mass-production at lower prices
manufacturing method in which a product is put together as it moves along a belt
a document granting an inventor sole rights to make and sell an invention
someone who sets up new businesses to make a profit
a business owned by many investors
a company that controls most or all businesses in a particular industry
a group of corporations run by a single board of directors
controlled the steel making industry ... he owned mines, mills, railroads, shipping and skyscrapers
a method to make steel stronger at a low cost
John D Rockefeller
controlled oil refinement .. created a trust called Standard Oil, cut prices to drive competing companies out of business
two businesses that offer closely related products or services are merged into one company ... example one car manufacturer buys another car manufacturer (Porshe & VW... Disney with Pixar (movie production)
the process of taking over your industry's supply chain ... standard oil ... drilled, refined, transported products to retailers
Refers to big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. When they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
Captains of Industry
Owners and managers of large industrial enterprises who wielded extraordinary political and economic power (JPMorgan, Andrew Carnegie, JDRockefeller)
the theory that "survival of the fittest" happens in business ... big business leaders used this to justify limiting competition
government didn't interfere with the economy or business practices
receiving pay based on each piece of product produced ... pushed people to work beyond normal pace
Division of labor
specialization of labor into a series of tasks ... one person always did same job
A factory where workers worked long hours at low wages under dangerous conditions
Knights of Labor
Philadelphia clothing workers formed a union ... included women, immigrants, unskilled workers. No strikes; believed in rallies ... stopped by violent labor disputes.
American Federation of Labor
Columbus Ohio. Only skilled workers. Liked collective bargaining.
I. W. W.
International Workers of the World; labor radicals that wanted to unionize into one big union; unsuccessful
man who formed AFL
elected president of Knights of Labor
unions negotiated with management for workers as a group
Agreement by two parties to place a dispute before a third party for a binding settlement.
the rapid growth of a city population
buildings divided into many tiny apartments ... downtown slums ... garbage no heat no windows or plumbing
worked hard to help poor city dwellers, opened Hull House (settlement house)
Social Gospel Movement
preached salvation through the assistance to the poor
a center offering help to the urban poor, taught English, sponsored music/sports, nurseries for children so mom could work
First Wave Immigrants
1850-1880; mostly from N/W Europe...literate and familiar with government; spoke English, assimilated faster
Second Wave Immigrants
1890-1910; S/E Europe, few spoke English, little education, large #''s of persecuted groups, brought new religions
crammed area below ship decks ...large compartments that usually held cattle ... breading ground for disease
favoritism towards native born Americans ... thought new immigrants would not assimilate and took American jobs
is the process of becoming part of another culture
How did business change the workplace and give rise to labor unions?
Bold entrepreneurs, corporations, banks making big loans, monopolies. Use of trusts and social Darwinism by the "captains of industry" created a workplace filled with hostility and dangers. Unions sought safer working conditions, higher wages, and shorter hours.
What were the effects of the rapid growth of the cities?
overcrowded; poor sanitation; lack of clean water; crime; fires
What were the push factors that allowed for a new wave of immigration?
Poverty, overpopulation, political persecution, religious persecution and environmental disasters
What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution in the United States?
railroads, natural resources, immigration, urbanization, inventions, new business practices, social Darwinism, government laissez-faire attitude
What were the pull factors that allowed for a new wave of immigration?
Hope for a better life, Work in growing industries, Land opportunities, Tales of riches and acceptance