Social Psych. Bias UMHB Ch. 8

Normative influence
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Terms in this set (49)
Public complianceoutwardly going along with the group but maintaining a private, inner belief that the group is wrong, and may be influenced by normative social influenceSocial influence can be organized into four basic principles:commitment and consistency; reciprocation; scarcity; and capturing and disrupting attentionFoot in the door techniquebased on the principle of starting with a small request in order to get eventual compliance with much larger requests.Complying with small requests increasesthe likelihood of complying with larger request laterLow-ball techniquethe requester first gets a person to comply with a seemingly low-cost request and only later reveals hidden additional costs. Based on the principle of commitment and consistencyBait-and-switch techniqueBased on commitment and consistency, in which one draws people in with an attractive offer that is unavailable and then swetches them to a less attractive offer that is availableLabeling TechniqueInvolves assigning a label to an individual and then requesting a favor that is consistent with the label. it is a technique based on the commitment and consistency principle.Research has shown this technique can persuade both children and adultsLabelingInfluence techniques based on the principle of commitment and consistency:foot in the door, low ball, bait and switch, labeling, and legitimization of paltry favorsReciprocityif you take care of me, I will take care of you; is one of the foundations of cultureTwo influence techniques are based on reciprocation:door in the face and that's not allDoor in the faceInvolves making an inflated request (that will most likely be rejected) and then retreat to a smaller request.Why would the door in the face technique not work?If the first request is so extreme that it is seen as unreasonable, or if two different people make the requestThat's not all techniqueBegins with an inflated request, however, before the person can respond, the requester "sweetens" the deal by offering a discount or bonusThe reciprocation rule says that favors are to be repaid with?favorsAccording to the scarcity principle,rare opportunities are more valuable than plentiful opportunitiesScarcity is sometimes used as aheuristic cue in decision making- what is rare is goodIndividualistic cultures are more likely towant items of scarcityLimited number techniqueBased on scarcity. saying that only a limited amount of a product is available.Fast approaching deadline techniqueBased on scarcity; saying that an item or price is only available for a limited timePique techniqueBased on capturing and disrupting attention, captures the pedestrian's attention by making the request novelDisrupt then reframe techniqueInvolves disrupting critical thinking by introducing an unexpected element then reframes message in a positive light.Many influence and persuasion techniques are based on the ?duplex mindDistraction increases persuasion for weak messages anddecreases persuasion for strong messagesPersuasionan attempt to change a person's attitudeAristotle specified three components of the persuasive process:emotional appeal (pathos), intellectual appeal (logos), and charisma (ethos)The most important characteristics of the source of a message arecredibility and likabilitySource of persuasionthe individual who delivers the message; can be credible or notSleeper effectover time, people separated the message from the messengerHovland identified two characteristics that will make a source credible:expertise and trustworthinessExpertiseHow much the source knowsTrustworthinesswhether the source will honestly tell you what he or she knowsConvert communicatorspeople who describe how they overcame obstacles; they are likable because they are similar to audience members.Persuasion is also determined if we like the source, two important factors that influence whether we like someone aresimilarity and physical attractivenessFast speakers are more persuasive than slow speakers, also they are judged to bemore intelligent, knowledgeable, and objectiveFast talking can ? if the message is strong, and ? if the message is weak.reduce persuasion; increase persuasionHalo effectThe assumption that if people have one desirable trait (attractiveness) then they other desirable traitsThere are two approaches in presenting a persuasive message:Present cold hard facts or appeal to emotionsInverted U-shaped relationshipAttitude change is lowest for no fear and extremely high fear appeals, with the most attitude change occurring for moderate fear appeals. Not enough appeal= no change; to much appeal= scare people off