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56 terms

BMS 208

exam 1
STUDY
PLAY
anatomy
cut open, study of structure
physiology
study of function
ancient egypt/mummification
began 2,600 bce. Basic knowledge of organ placement, removal, body preservation
Cyrus the Great
559-530 BCE; criminals used for dissection and medical research
Hippocrates
(460-337 BCE), 'First' anatomist and "father" of medicine
• Attributed diseases to natural causes (not religious)
aristotle
384-322 BCE, Understanding of form from dissection of comparative species
Misunderstanding of function of the organ systems (heart as furnace, brain and lungs as A/C, vessels contain air)
Herophilis
(335-280 BCE), • Vivisectionist movement
First link of brain to intelligence
First to compare human and animal's bodies
galen
130-201 AD, Prominent 'human' anatomist with 150 known writings.
• Held as the authority for 1300 years
Promoted concept of the four bodily humors
"Prince of Physicians"
Stressed importance of experimentation in medicine.
choleric
yellow bile
melancholics
black bile
sanguinious
blood
choleric
yellow bile
holy quran
human embryogenesis - organs of hearing, eye and brain
Islamic conquest of Persia
holy quran, •Scholars dissected humans and animals
•Human Anatomy as a gage of intelligence
rhazes
applied neuroanatomy, praised and rejected Galen's work.
Avicenna
The Canon of Medicine ~1020 AD. the void between Galen and Vesalius
tusi
Observation of anatomical
structures; ideas of human evolution, heredity, and variation
Renaissance
1300's - 1500's, Change driven first by artists, not by the medical community
Andreas Vesalius
Italian artist and anatomist
• Founder of the science of anatomy
• Provoked other anatomists against galen and for human cadaver dissections
First to articulate skeletons for display in medical schools
His findings and dissections helped correct misconceptions that had existed for 2000 years
William Harvey
Like Vesalius, challenged Galen's views
• Dispelled Aristotelian idea of blood vessels containing air
Accurately described the circular, direction flow of blood and the actions of the heart
established the basis for modern embryology
Anton Von Leeuwenhoek
• Dutch scientist/optical engineer
• Invented (relatively) powerful microscope
• Allowed for first clear views of cells and cell structures
Warburton Anatomy Act
1832, medical schools not allowed to dig up dead body graves
M.J. Schleiden and Theodor Schwaan
"All living things are composed of cells"
• Five Tenets of Cells:
• Building blocks of all plants and animals
• Produced by division of other cells
• Smallest units that perform all functions
• Maintain homeostasis as a cell.
• Homeostasis above the cell level reflects actions of multiple cells
William Roentgen (and Bertha)
• Discovered rays that could penetrate most materials
• 'X' for the unknown
Bertha's hand
anterior
in front of
posterior
in back of
ventral
at the belly side of human body
dorsal
at the back side
superior
toward the head
inferior
toward the feet
cranial
at the head
caudal
at the feet
medial
toward midline of body
lateral
away from midline of body
deep
on the inside
superficial
on the outside
proximal
closest to the point of attachment
distal
furthest from the point of attachment
axial region
head, neck, trunk
appendicular
all else
parietal layer
lines inside of organs
visceral
external surface of organs
transverse plane
cuts perp.
frontal plane
cuts into front and back halfs
sagittal plane
cuts into left and right halfs
chemical level
atoms and molecules
water molecules
vitamins
macromolecules
dna, proteins
cellular level
first level to maintain homeostasis, made up of cells
tissue level
group of cells with common function
epithelial tissue
covers surfaces, lines body cavity and organs
connective tissue
bones, fat, supports bone, blood, and cartilage
muscle
produces movement, smooth, cardiac, skeletal
nervous
conducts nerve impulses for communication
integumentary
skin, hair, protection
skeletal
bones, support, protection and movement, stores calcium and phosphorus, provides site for muscle attatchements