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All the Information for AP Exam 2
Terms in this set (269)
What is described as being "reserved for something that brings harm or threat of heart (risk of life) to a person and their body"?
Combat, assualts, neglect, abuse, and rape, are examples of what concept?
True or false: all the distressing things we encounter from day to day is considered to be trauma
False, trauma isn't everything distressing we encounter from day to day
True or false: medical professional can experience trauma as they are working with someone who went through trauma themselves
True, this is known as secondary trauma
What is the difference between PTSD and Acute Stress Disorder?
When the symptoms occur within one month of the trauma = ACUTE STRESS DISORDER
When the symptoms occur after one month of the trauma = PTSD
What has symptoms such as: intrusive reminders, avoidance, negative mood or cognition alterations, or having hyper arousal?
PTSD or Acute Stress Disorder
What aspect of acute stress disorder and PTSD can be described as "continuing to force itself in your mind and reminds you, can sneak into your consciences, is considered a flashback, and even includes having nightmares"?
What aspect of acute stress disorder and PTSD can be described as "staying away from situations and locations that remind you of that memory, in which we try to push the memory down by distracting ourselves, show a detachment of feelings, and can involve alcohol abuse"?
What aspect of acute stress disorder and PTSD can be described as "persistent negative alterations such as fear and shame, tend to blame themselves for the traumatic experience, might detach themselves from other people, might not participate in activities that used to bring them joy, and may experience some memory loss"?
Negative mood/cognition alterations
What aspect of acute stress disorder and PTSD can be described as "having hypervigilance (being on edge and easily startled), possibly not being able to concentrate at work, might have cardiovascular problems, may try to knock themselves out, and nothing being secure for the person mentally speaking"?
True or false: symptoms of acute stress disorder and PTSD can still arise ten years after the trauma occurs?
When acute stress disorder or PTSD occurs six months or later after the trauma, this is called what?
What form of disorders involves childhood disorders, in which maltreatment is usually a factor, physical, security, and emotional needs have not been met, neglect is common, and can lead to a lack of trust"?
What disorder can be described as "someone being hyper-vigilant and very aware of what is going on, may freeze up, is inhibited in social interactions with others, withdraws emotionally, and has limited positive affect, which means they often react in anger or indifference, and may look like anxiety as a result"?
Reactive attachment disorder
What disorder can be described as "someone not showing any hesitation in inappropriate social interaction, such as sitting in stranger's lap, and involves problems with appropriate age boundaries, for instance a nine year old boy sitting in the stranger's lap, and the person may even wander off from the parent"?
Disinhibited social engagement disorder
What disorder can be described as "someone who shows anxious or depressive reactions to stress or life transitions, such as going though a divorce, significant stress, or simply a major life change, and the person can be diagnosed even if the symptoms do not fit the diagnosis"?
What is the physiological etiology of trauma and stress related disorders?
The person reacts strongly or trauma can influence the person
What is the diathesis-stress model for trauma and stress related disorders?
Is the person able to cope well? Respond to stress well? Controls emotions?
What is the medical treatment for anxiety disorders?
Medications for focus, including serotonin and GABA
What is the behavioral treatment for anxiety disorder?
Exposure (including imaginal, virtual, or actual), or relaxation techniques
What is exposure treatment used for in treating anxiety disorders?
What is "imaginal" exposure in therapy? What is the goal?
When the client is being accustomed to the words of the situations. While they are imaging this, they are calm. The goal is to reduce stress
What is "virtual" exposure in therapy?
Virtual reality treament with exposure
What is "actual" exposure in therapy?
The client has interaction with the situation or person that cause dthem harm and practices new skills
What is cognitive treatment used for in treating anxiety disorders?
This approach challenges to replace maladaptive thoughts
What does it mean to challenge or replace maladaptive thoughts in cognitive treatment for anxiety disorders?
The goal is to be able to address the negative thoughts and replace them. This also includes when someone blames themselves when they say "if only I had done this, or that."
What particular type of therapy will usually be used in treating anxiety disorder?
Cognitive behaviorial therapy, or more specifically trauma focus CBT
In trauma focus CBT (TFCBT), what is something in particular you cannot say? What should you say instead?
Do not say "that thing that happened". Instead say "that accident"
What type of disorder involves "an urge in some time of relief when you act on that urge to do something, and there is some tension"?
Impulse control disorders
True or false: pyromania is rare
True, less than one percent of the population has pyromania
What disorder can be described as "the irresistible urge to set fires on purpose"?
What percentage of arsonists are diagnosed as pyromaniacs?
Only 3 percent of arsonists
What disorder has a tension and gratification principle in which there is an arousal in the person's mind to set fire to something, as if its a craving feeling, and when the thing burns, there is then gratification?
Why might someone (a pyromaniac) want to set fire to something?
To hide insurance fraud or evidence, or simply for revenge reasons.
True or false: those with pyromania are always the one's setting off the fire
False, sometimes they are not they person setting off the fires, such as a firefighter who sees the destruction of a building from a fire, which brings gratification perhaps.
True or false: without treatment, pyromania is chronic
What treatment types are used for pyromania?
What triggers/causes pyromania development?
elevation of emtion, including more than stress, but even boredom, or internal conflict
What neurotransmitter is involved in impulse control disorders?
What impulse control disorder is criminal-activity related?
True or false: Kleptomania is rare
True, it is very rare, at only 0.3-0.6% of the population
Who makes up most of the kleptomania population, males or females? How much?
Females, which make up 75% of this population
What disorder involves the recurrent failure to resist the urge to steal, an urge that unwanted?
What disorder involves pleasure when stealing?
True or false: The object that was stolen is what brings pleasure to kleptomaniacs
False, its the relief/gratification of actually stealing itself
What are the outcomes of acting on the urges in kleptomania?
Functional impairments, including being fired from a job from stealing money, or even ending in prison
What disorder involves not being able to judge short-term gratification vs long-term consequences, and instead acts on their urge"
True or false: People with kleptomania sometimes report that they do not remember stealing at all
True, and it is due to poor frontal lobe development (the lobe that deals with judgement)
Why do people sometimes report that they do not remember stealing at all?
They have poor frontal lobe development, which deals with judgement
What type of disorders particularly co-occur with kleptomania
Why do mood disorders co-occur with kleptomania
Stealing is an anti-depressant behavior, which bumps mood up.
What happens to kleptomaniacs who go without stealing?
They may have withdrawl symptoms and feel like they are going without their "fix" and may not be able to sleep well
What are treatments for kleptomania?
Antidepressants, relaxation training, or alternatives to the solution of urges (aside from stealing)
What can be described as "when mood is lower than normal, particularly for an extended period of time"?
What can be described as "when mood is higher than normal, particularly for an extended period of time"?
What indicates what type of mood disorder you have?
Having depressive episodes vs. manic/hypmanic episodes
How long must you have a major depressive episode to have major depressive disorder?
2 weeks or longer
How many of the nine symptoms must you have at minimum to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder?
5 out of the nine symptoms
What disorder involves having symptoms such as depressive mood, lost of interest of pleasure, changes in appetite or eating, changes in sleep, agitation or restlessness, fatigue or heavy exhaustion, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guild, problems with concentration and/or making decisions, or having reoccurring thoughts of death, suicide, or suicidal plan or attempt"?
Major Depressive Disorder
True or false: major depressive disorder causes stress or impairment
What age developmental differences are there for major depressive disorder when considering children vs. adults?
Children will have stomach aches and headaches, report boredom, or be cranky
Adults will complain about being lethargic and similar symptoms
When was disruptive mood dysregulation disorder introduced?
In DSM V
Why was disruptive mood dysregulation disorder introduced
There was a major increase in diagnoses of people that had symptoms of bipolar disorder but did not have manic episodes. Since this condition doesn't completely fit bipolar disorder, the had to introduce this disorder since there was not already a specific diagnosis for it.
A person must be in what age range to be diagnosed with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder?
When do symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder usually begin?
Before the age of ten, starting with age six, criteria is usually met.
Why isn't disruptive mood dysregulation disorder diagnosed before age six?
Before age six, a child throughing tempers is developmentally normal, so they are not diagnosed with this disorder before this age
What aspect of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder involves major temper or aggression, must happen in multiple occasions and scenarios, tempers are more intense and happen, and occur at least three or more times per week, in which you see irritable and angry moods"?
reccurent temper outburst
True or false: recurrent temper outburst cannot be seen by others who do not have the symptom
False, recurrent temper outburst can be seen by others
What are oppositions to diagnosing a person with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder?
Other diagnoses could explain the same symptoms
We are trying to justify why kids are throwing temper tantrums, when the behavior could just be reinforced because the children get what they want when they throw the tantrum
What is another name for persistent depressive disorder?
Eeyore is an example of what disorder?
Persistent depressive disorder
Ouiser on Steel Magnolias has what disorder?
Persistent Depressive Disorder
What disorder involves chronic, enduring form of depression that will last at least two years with no break lasting longer than two months, in which there is an annoying pain always causing you to have a lower mood?
Persistent depressive disorder
Why might persistent depressive disorder be overlooked?
It coincides with depressive symptoms and could simply be seen as a personality trait, rather than a disorder
What particular disorder is sometimes called mild depression?
Persistent depressive disorder
What disorder involves severe mood symptoms prior to monthly menstrual cycle?
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
What percentage of people who have menstrual cycles have PMS
What percentage of people with menstrual cycles have premenstrual dysphoric disorder?
What disorder effects the ability to work or function, having relationship problems, and having irritability or depressed mood the week prior to a menstrual cycle?
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
What aspect of suicide involves a person saying "I think about killing myself everyday"?
What aspect of suicide involves a person saying "There is no reason to live"?
What aspect of suicide involves "the goal of following through on actually committing suicide"?
What aspect of suicide involves "a strategy to go through with the suicide"?
What aspect of suicide involves "the resources or methods that increases the risk of being able to commit suicide"?
What aspect of suicide involves "questioning whether someone has been hospitalized recently or had past suicide attempts"?
What aspect of suicide involves "Notable things that increase the likelihood of suicide"?
Alcohol and/or drugs
What aspect of suicide involves "also having anxiety or even depression"?
What aspect of suicide involves "having religious beliefs or support of others that keeps you from committing suicide"?
What was bipolar I once called (that it is no longer called or referred to as)?
What disorder has an emphasis on a change in energy and mood?
Bipolar I disorder
How many manic episodes must a person have to be diagnosed with bipolar I disorder
At least one manic episode
How long must a person have symptoms of a manic episode to be diagnosed with bipolar I disorder?
At least for one week
What disorder involves "a change in energy and activity level, or irritable mood"?
Bipolar I disorder
What is the minimum amount of symptoms of a manic episode a person must have to be diagnosed with bipolar I disorder?
Three or more (four if mood is irritable)
What disorder involves symptoms such as "inflated self-esteem or gradiosity, pressured speech involving excessive talking without stopping, racing thoughts known as flight of ideas, a decreased need for sleep, distracted by details and lacks focus, has increased goal directed activity in which the person is super focused for a long time, and involves themselves excessively in activities with high potential for painful consequences such as investing in tanking stocks or going on a shopping spree"?
Bipolar I disorder
What disorder involves hypomanic episodes and major depressive episodes?
Bipolar II Disorder
If a person has hypomanic episodes and major depressive disorders, but never has a manic episode or psychosis, this person would have what disorder?
Bipolar II disorder (because if they did have a manic episode or psychosis, that would be bipolar I disorder)
What is described as "some part of your memory, identity, or awareness that has become separated"?
True or false: the length of dissociation is permenant
False, the length of dissociation can be brief/temporary or permanent
With someone who experiences dissociation, what happens when they go a few days without sleep and experience stress?
They feel hypnotized and do not remember things they have done
In what form of disorders does attention shift and things are done without even noticing?
With someone who has a dissociative disorder, how does the brain respond to stress?
The brain says the stress is too much and the person won't remember the stressful situation
At what point in particular is a person diagnosed with dissociative disorder?
When the dissociation is recurrent
True or false: dissociative disorder is controversial, but easy to measure
False, while it is controversial because some say the disorder is real and others say it is fake, it is NOT easy to measure
What other disorder in particular can occur with dissociative disorders?
Dissociations can happen in response to what?
In response to a stressful event
In what group of disorders is there some fragment in time of experience?
What disorder can be described as "some split in memory, in which important details and experiences one cannot recall"?
True or false: dissociative amnesia can lead to lack of memory in specific situations
Is dissociative amnesia due to a psychological reason or physical reason
PSYCHOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL!!!
How is stress and trauma related to dissociative amnesia?
When we have a series of stressors or a single event that is so painful or traumatic, out mind protects itself and cannot remember it
True or false: dissociative amnesia can occur in a specific moment or time period of your live, and even selective occasions
What can be described as "a specific detail of this disorder in which someone has lost memory of their identity, such as their name, home, family, etc."?
Under what disorder would a person possibly change names, houses, or adopt a new identity?
True or false: people with dissociative amnesia are not aware of the change of adopting a new identity, including a new name or new house
True! They are just trying to rebuild from their loss of memory and events, and simply do not realize they had a life before the disorder
True or false: Dissociative fugue is permanent and cannot be reversed
False, in most cases, dissociative fugue is reversed at some point in which the person realizes their life before
What disorder can be described as "a recurrent feeling of loosing a sense of who you are, that you feel as if you are not real and are controlled from the outside, and have a detachment from your body or mind"?
What disorder can be described as "when someone feels like they are living in a dream, are unfamiliar with the environment, and the reality of the external world is lost, fuzzy, and hazy, including the feelings that people do not seem real?
What disorder involves the person feelings as if them and the surroundings are not real?
What particular disorder is often paired with a secondary diagnosis, and may even be involved with an injury?
True or false: a person with derealization will have problems with stress, trauma, health problems, or other mental health issues?
What happens to emotional response with a person who has derealization disorder?
Emotional response has decrease, and often times this disorder will inhibit emotional expression
What particular disorder involves an impairment in the HPA axis, in which there is a deregulation of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal cortical?
When there are impairments in the HPA axis in derealization, what deficits occur?
There are deficits in perception and emotional regulation
What disorder involves the person identifying themselves with an average of ten to fifteen developed personalities?
Dissociative identity disorder
What are the three aspects of dissociative identity disorder?
The host, the alters, and the switch between the two
What is the "host" in dissociative identity disorder?
The personality closest to your real self
What are the "alters" in dissociative identity disorder?
Different personalities from your real self that develop differences in interests and handwriting, for example
What is the "switch" in dissociative identity disorder?
The switch is the changing between the host and alter
True or false: when someone switches from alter to alter in dissociative identity disorder, the person can remember the actions they did in the previous alter
False, there are often gaps of memory from switch to switch of identities
True or false: Dissociative identity disorder can be self reported, as well as reported by others
What disorder is controversial and difficult to fake, but even when someone memorizes a list of words in one alter, they can still recall those words in another alter?
Dissociative identity disorder
What happens when therapist suggest to the client that they have multiple personalities?
The clients will believe that they have multiple personalities and that the therapists are the ones inducing these symptoms
What particular things must be considered when diagnosing dissociative identity disorder?
Life experiences including abuse or extreme traumatic events
What in particular is a tool of escape for children who may experience traumatic events?
Developing multiple personalities (dissociative identity disorder)
What age is the closing window of developing dissociative identity disorder?
What is the cognitive profile of dissociative identity disorder?
Deficits in attention, information processing, making short term memories, and spatial reasonsing
What does "soma" mean?
What disorder has physical problems that derive from psychological origins?
What disorder has the absence of a medical problem, or symptoms that are experienced cannot be fully explained by medical conditions?
True or false: somatic disorder is easy to establish as the primary diagnosis
False! It is hard to establish as a primary diagnosis
What disorder has thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to body symptoms?
True or false: pain is still experienced in somatic disorders
What disorder can be described as "having one or more recurrent body symptoms, in which someone is physically feeling something in their body suchas chest pains, irregular heartbeat, or shortness of breath"?
Somatic symptom disorder
What disorder involves the actions, thoughts, or feelings about the body to be excessive, in which the person is overly concerned?
Somatic symptom disorder
What disorder is specified by persistent pain without physical defects?
Somatic symptom disorder
True or false: in somatic symptom disorder, the actions, thoughts, or feelings about the body lingers
What disorder can involve preoccupied attention with body functions and thoughts of having a serious illness?
Illness anxiety disorder
True or false: there is an absence of somatic (body) symptoms in illness anxiety disorder
Where the focus maintained on within illness anxiety disorder?
The focus is on the sickness, and there is a large deal of distress
What disorder may even have the person take normal bodily functions and over think and over worry about having a serious illness?
Illness anxiety disorder
What disorder in particular was an interest for Freud?
What disorder involves unexplained neurological symptoms, in which it looks as if something wrong is going on neurologically, but nothing can be found
What disorder can have altered motor or sensory function, in which someone could become blind or lose walking ability?
What disorder involves localized symptoms, as well as paralysis, tremors, weakness, loss of touch, or loss of sight, etc.?
Conversion disorder is usually caused by?
What must be completed for diagnosis of conversion disorder? Why?
A neurological exam, because there could be a major problem
What part of the brain may be related to conversion disorder?
True or false: conversion disorder is fairly common
False, it is moreso rare
What is the difference between a somatic symptom disorder vs a conversion disorder?
A somatic symptom is a complaint of body symptoms such as illness, whereas conversion is a change in body function, such as motor or sensory dysfunction, like a seizure
What was formerly known as Munchausen Syndrome?
What disorder involves intentionally produced symptoms, in which the person is self-faking the symptoms?
True or false: the behavior of a person with factitious disorder is random
False: the person will demonstrate a PATTERN of behavior
In what disorder will the person appear to be "sick"?
True or false: a person is faking sickness because of personal gain such as getting to miss work?
False, aside from looking for sympathy or attention, there are no other sought rewards
What is the reason someone with factitious disorder will want to fake being "sick"?
The reason they do so is to gain sympathy or attention
What disorder involves someone faking symptoms such as blood pressure, putting blood in their urine, having chest pains, faking lab results, grieve, or even dissociative identity disorder?
What disorder involves someone who will go to the doctor frequently to seek treatment?
Once the doctor figures out what is going on, a person with factitious disorder will then do what?
They will switch doctors
True or false: a person with factitious disorder may go to the doctor at certain times of the day?
What disorder involves someone who might report false medical history?
True or false: a person factitious disorder knows that they are faking an illness, and they know the reason why they do
Partially true, a person with factitious disorder may know that they are faking an illness, however, they may NOT know why they do so
Are people with factitious disorder devoted to faking an illness?
Yes! These people are VERY devoted to faking illnesses
What was factitious disorder imposed by another formerly known as?
Factitious disorder by proxy or munchausen by proxy
What disorder involves faking the illness of another person or may even induce these symptoms on another person
Factitious disorder imposed on another
What disorder acts "sick" and as if they have a disorder for personal gain, such as social security benefits, or to get out of going to work/school?
What are challenges of treating somatic disorders?
Convincing the client they have a somatic disorder, becuase if you tell someone that the pain they feel is all in their head, they can become insulted
Helping the client interpret when it is a serious medical emergency
What is mindfulness when concerning treating somatic disorders?
Being aware of something besides the symptoms by shifting your attention away from your body
True or false: CBT is a treatment option for somatic disorder
What medications are taken to treat somatic disorders? What symptoms is the medication trying to resolve?
SSRI's are taken for anxiety
What is described as "collaborative therapy used for somatic disorders in which a client has to be invested and active in the process of therapy, including working with the therapist on realistic expectations, diagnosis, and relate matters"?
What are the biological etiologies of somatic disorders?
Disproportionate disease in childhood within the family
What are the emotional etiologies of somatic disorders?
More emotionally responsive
Has more negative emotions with experiences
Has poor insight and may not recognize what their own emotions actually are
Why do somatic disorders usually stay after childhood?
The behaviors of the disorders are maintained because of reinforcement of the behaviors.
What are environmental etiologies of somatic disorders?
Greater stress in family
What happens when someone with a somatic disorder misinterprets their body symptoms?
Anxiety goes up
What happens when someone with a somatic disorder is more perceptive?
Their responses of bodily sensations increases and can feel more pains or twitches, for example
True or false: a person with dissociative will not be able to remember any details in an experience in the past?
False, the person might not be able to recall some of the memory, but they might be able to remember some of the details
What symptoms would a person with OCPD have? What don't they have
Cannot function unless something is the way they want it
They DON'T have obsessions or compulsions
What are obsessions?
Intrusive and persistent thoughts, images etc.
True or false: a person with OCD can easily stop obsessional thoughts
False, they cannot stop these thoughts
Thought a person with OCD cannot stop obsessional thoughts, how do they try to ease or cope with them?
They try to suppress thoughts/images and may perform tasks to neutralize the thoughts
What is a compulsion?
recurrent behaviors to get rid of obsessional thoughts that are persistent in order to offer relief
True or false: OCD causes a lot of stress and time commitment?
True, and it can take over someone's life
True or false: you must have both obsessions and compulsions to be diagnosed; you cannot have just one or the other
False, you do not have to have both to be diagnosed as OCD
What does it mean for a person to have a "contamination" obsession?
They are worried about germs, sticky substances, dirt, etc
What does it mean for a person to have an aggression/violence obsession?
They have repetitive thoughts that they will kill someone/something (or have a thought like "did I leave the iron on? I will burn the house down")
What does it mean for a person to have a obsessive thoughts of sexual related things?
They may have thoughts that are forbidden or impulses that are inappropriate, sexual behaviors toward another person
What does it mean for a person to have a symmetry/order obsession?
They have a need for exactness in a certain way, or otherwise something bad will happen
What does it mean for a person to have a religious obsession?
They worry about blasphemous thoughts and try to behave correctly at all times. Also, their may be colors of significance or superstitious fears
What does it mean for someone to have a counting compulsion?
They sometimes count to check for presence (repetitive counting that everyone in the conversation is still present for example) Or just count the amount of things
What does it mean to have checking compulsions?
You may check locks to assure it's locked or make sure there is no poison in the dog bowl over and over
What does it mean to have "repeating" compulsions?
You may repeat phrases or rewrite things over and over
What may contribute to OCD?
Possibly genetic or biological, some form of stress may also be a common symptom or cause
What brain structure is related to OCD?
What is thought action fusion?
When an OCD person has thoughts so dangerous, they believe they are as dangerous as performing the actions themselves. As a result they may have similar guilt from thinking it as if they had actually performed the action
True or false: panic attacks may occur in OCD people
What medication is given to treat OCD?
SSRI to address serotonin
What is ritual prevention treatment?
A treatment for OCD that includes addressing cognitions at the same time as preventing the rituals
What is gradual, systematic exposure?
A treatment option for OCD, such as for contamination, in which the exposure is slowly added
What is body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)? What part does this usually include? What might it be the result of?
The dominant focus and concerning thought or idea that some part of your body is ugly or defective. Usually involves the face, skin, or nose. Might be the result of injury
What are "ideas of reference"?
A symptom in Body dysmorphic disorder in which people pay close attention to your actions, for example may think that if you cancel a date, it's because of their defect
How is Body Dysmorphic Disorder treated?
Going to dermatologist, but that may not help
Might avoid covering up the defect with makeup (so that the behavior avoidance is there)
What is hoarding disorder?
The long standing time of keeping useless items because they feel a deep connection to these as if they are extremely valuable
What is trichotillomania?
Hair pulling disorder
What population is trichotillomania common in?
True or false: people with trichtillomania are obsessed with their hair?
False, they aren't obsessed with their hair
True or false: people with trichtillomanja are unable to stop pulling their hair out
True or false: people with trichtillomania pull their hair out because of perceived flaws
False, it is not due to perceived flaws
True or false, trichtillomania is a repetitive behavior
What is excoriation?
Skin picking disorder
True or false: the people with excoriation only pick at their skin once a day
False, it's a repetitive habit
Excoriation can lead to what?
How long per day do people with excoriation spend picking at their skin?
In Bipolar II disorder, what is rapid cycling?
When you have four or more severe mood episodes in a year
Where on their body do people with excoriation commonly pick at their skin?
What are mixed episodes in Bipolar II disorder?
When you have the energy of mania (energized), but also have the mood of depression (sad)
People with bipolar II disorder tend to not seek help or treatment. This aspect relates to what within bipolar II disorder?
What two particular things influence depression?
Biology and environment
The genetic influences, serotonin levels, and dopamine levels all relate to what aspect of depression
The bilogical influences of depression
People with depression often have what level of serotonin?
What is the challenging aspect of serotonin and dopamine levels when considering depression?
It can be hard to distinguish these levels from biological vs the environment
Low dopamine levels can equal what?
In depression, there is no reinforcement of what?
Reinforcement of large amounts of dopamine
Trauma, loss, and abuse are all examples of what aspect of the environmental factors in depression
Acute stress in depression depletes what?
Neglect, finances, work, relationships, and health are all examples of what aspect in environmental influences of depression?
In depression, if the things that improve mood is no longer reinforcing the large dopamine levels, what might happen as a result?
You might stop doing these things
What is the cognitive aspect of depression?
The cognitive triad: negative views of you, the world, and the future
In the disorder of Mania, what part of the brain is effected?
The frontal cortex
What neurotransmitters are abnormal in mania disorder?
Serotonin, NE, dopamine, ACh
What disorder involves having "bad childhood experiences" and the people do not understand behaviors have consequences"?
What causes a person with mania disorder to not understand that behaviors have consequences?
Inconsistencies in reinforcement of behavior when growing up
What disorder particularly has triggers that include being sensitive to environmental events and having a hard time with circadian rhythm aspects like eating or sleeping, in which the person must have a regular circadian rhythm to avoid episodes?
What disorder has recurrent episodes of binge eating?
Binge eating disorder
What disorder would involve a person having a lack of control and will eat more than others eat in a similar time?
Binge eating disorder
True or false: people with binge eating disorder never have distress?
False: people with this disorder report having distress over binge eating
With is the minimum amount of symptoms a person must have to be diagnosed with binge eating disorder?
3 (or more)
What disorder involves the person eating rapidly, eating past the point of feeling full or uncomfortably full, eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry, eating alone due to embarrassment, feeling disgusted with themselves, or feeling depressed or guilty?
Binge eating disorder
True or false: obesity is a part of the binge eating disorder diagnosis
False: Obesity is NOT part of the diagnosis for binge eating disorder
True or false: in anorexia, weight is a factor?
What disorder involves a restriction of intake that is relative to what they need or is required for them, and as a result tends to lead to significantly low body weight, typically eighty-five percent of normal weight
What disorder has an intense fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat?
What disorder involves symptoms such as showing the lack of recognition of the seriousness of low body weight, having denial of an illness, has a perception of body size and weight that is distorted, and has a use of weight and body shape as an undue influence of self evaluation
How many types of anorexia are there? What are those types?
Restriction: the type we are familar with, including below normal caloric intake and performing excessive exercise
Binge-eating/purging: binging or purging
What disorder has the severity of their disorder influenced by BMI, functional disability, and the need for supervision
Being a perfectionist, obsessionality, neuroticism, low self esteem, and being a worriers are personality traits of what disorder?
What disorder involves a person who has recurrent episodes of binge eating, including eating more than most and losing control when eating, but is within ten percent of their ideal body weight?
What disorder involves self induced vomiting, misusing laxatives, diuretics, enemas, medications in order to purge, fasting, or excessive exercise?
How often do anorexia and bulimia symptoms usually occur?
At least once per week for three months on average
What disorder involves a self evaluation that is unduly influenced by body shape and weight?
What disorder involves feeling more out of control of life, often seen in mood fluctuations?
What group of disorders is characterized with having low levels of serotonin?
Spikes in dopamine levels are seen in what disorders?
Binge eating and bulimia
Planning meals is a technique used for what disorder in order to maintain caloric intake?
True or false: people with eating disorders have low irritability rates
False: they have high irritability rates
With eating disorders, you are five times more likely to have these disorders if who that you know has one?
What, when pertaining to experiences, is more negative after the onset of a eating disorder?
Family and peer relationships, however this in not the main cause of these disorders
What are media exposures that can lead to eating disorders?
Cultural pressures to be thin
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
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