69 terms

IB DP Geography - Core 1: Changing Population

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Population
The total number of people living in a place.
Crude birth rate
The number of live births of a given area during a given year, per 1,000 of the population.
Crude death rate
The number of deaths occurring among the population of a given area during a given year, per 1,000 of the population.
Natural increase
The difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths during the year. The natural increase (or natural decrease) is negative when the number of deaths exceeds the number of births.
Annual growth rate
The increase in a country's population during a period of time, usually one year, expressed as a percentage of the population at the start of that period. Reflects the number of birth and deaths and migration.
Total fertility rate
The average number of children a woman can expect to have given current fertility rates.
Replacement rate
The average number of children born per woman—at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next, without migration. This rate is roughly 2.1 children per woman for most countries.
Infant mortality rate
The number of deaths under one year of age occurring among the live births in a given area during a given year, per 1,000 live births.
Child mortality rate
The number of deaths under five years of age occurring in a given area during a given year, per 1,000 live births. i.e. Probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1,000 live births.
Life expectancy
The average period that a person may expect to live.
Maternal mortality rate
The death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, from any cause related to the pregnancy or its management.
Family planning
The practice of controlling the number of children one has and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of contraception or voluntary sterilization.
Birth order
Refers to the order a child is born, for example first born, second born etc
Birth interval
Refers to the time interval from one child's birth date until the next child's birth date.
Population projection
Estimates of total size or composition of populations in the future based on current trends in fertility and mortality.
Population policy
purposeful measures undertaken by governments aimed at affecting demographic processes, (eg fertility, mortality, and migration.)
Anti-natalist
Population policies designed to decrease the crude birth rate.
Pro-natalist
Population policies designed to increase the crude birth rate.
Ageing population
This occurs when the median age of a country increases due to rising life expectancy and/or declining fertility rates.
Population momentum
Population growth at the national level that would occur even if levels of childbearing immediately declined to replacement level. This is because of the time lag as younger generations move into the fertile age bracket.
Economically active
Proportion of the population aged 15-64 in the working age.
Dependency ratio
A measure showing the number of dependents, aged zero to 14 and over the age of 65, to the total population, aged 15 to 64.
Demographic transition model
A model that describes population change over time of the observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the past two hundred years.
Population pyramid
A graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age and gender groups in a population (aka an age-sex pyramid).
Population structure
The composition of a given population, which is broken down into categories such as age and gender.
Migration
The movement of people to live or work (usually for at least a year).
Migration balance
Difference between immigration and emigration.
Illegal immigrants
Migration of people across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country.
Push factors
Aspect of the migrant's origin location that makes them want to leave.
Pull factors
Aspect of the migrant's destination that makes them want to migrate there.
Voluntary migration
Migration by choice.
Forced migration
Refers to the movements of refugees and IDPs as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, famine, or development projects.
Selective migration
Migration which involves one particular cohort of the population (eg. working women).
Refugee
An individual seeking refuge or asylum; especially : an individual who has left his or her native country and is unwilling or unable to return to it because of persecution or fear of persecution (as because of race, religion, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion)
Internally displaced person (IDP)
Someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders
Asylum seeker
Refugee who is hoping to be granted refugee status inthe destination country.
Rural to urban migration
Migration from the countryside to towns and cities.
Brain drain
Emigraion of intelligent, skilled or capable resources especially due to lack of high paying jobs.
Commuting
Periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work (not migration).
Norway
Great country to use as an example of gender equality. Male and female footballers get paid equally for representing this country, and there is a crack special forces unit called 'the hunter troop' made up entirely of women
Saudi Arabia
Women were allowed to watch a sports match in a stadium for the first time ever in September 2017, and women were allowed to legally drive as well - 2 very clear signs of reform and an attempt at promoting gender equality.
Agadiz
City in Niger - this is staging post for journeys across the Sahara desert to Libyan ports. Migrants pay people smugglers to get them across the desert in the hope of eventually making it to Europe
Nigeria
Vulnerable women and girls are trafficked from this country and forced into a life of exploitation in European countries such as Italy and Spain
two child policy
From 1st January 2016, this population policy came into effect in mainland China
core-periphery
term used to explain which countries are most involved, and least involved in decision making about the world economy. The world order is starting to change, especially after the belt and road initiative in China recently
Thomas Malthus
THEORY - Said that population would grow at a geometric rate, but food would only increase at an arithmetic rate - therefore, we will very soon be overpopulated - PESSIMISTIC VIEW OF WORLD POPULATION GROWTH
Esther Boserup
THEORY - OPTIMISTIC VIEW OF WORLD POPULATION GROWTH - we are an innovative species and will find ways of ensuring that we can provide for the greater number of people on the earth - for example, green revolution, HYVs, vertical rooftop farming in cities, etc.
The Demographic dividend
Refers to a bulge in the number of adults in an organisation. Occurs when fertility rate falls allows faster economic growth
Carrying capacity
The maximum number of individuals that a given environment can support with the resources available and without detrimental effects.
Preventive checks (on population)
Postponement of marriage, higher cost of food, etc
Positive checks (on population)
War, famine, disease - ie the deaths of people who are alive now
North-South Divide
The increasing inequality in levels of development between the North and the South or between HICs (High Income Countries) and LICs (Low Income Countries).
Development Gap
The difference in wealth between the developed world (North) and the developing world (South).
OPEC
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, representing the interests of oil exporters. Its position is undermined by some oil-producing countries such as the UK, which does not agree with OPEC controlled oil prices.
The G7/G8
A group of the world's wealthiest and most powerful countries.
The G10 or Paris Club
A group representing the wealthiest members of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
BRICS
Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa - a group of NICs (countries experiencing rapid industrial, social and economic growth since 1960.)
Net migration
the difference between immigration and emigration for a particular country.
Fertility rate
the number of live births per 1000 women aged 15-49 in a given year.
Replacement level fertility
the level at which each generation has just enough children to replace themselves in the population. Although the level varies for different populations, a total fertility rate of 2.12 children is usually considered as replacement level.
Sex ratio
the n umber of males per 100 females in a population.
Diffusion
the spread of a phenomenon over time and space.
Demography
the scientific study of human populations
Demographic transition
the historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a populations.
Rate of natural change
the difference between the birth rate and the death rate.
Census
an official periodic count of a population including such information as age, gender, occupation and ethnic origin.
Natural decrease
when the numbers of births is lower than the number of deaths.
Immigration
the migration of people into a country from one or a number of other countries. (in)
Emigration
the migration of people from a country to one or a number of other countries. (out)
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