75 terms

Biology

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Biosphere
The largest level of ecological organization
Abiotic factor
Nonliving factor inside an ecosystem
Population
Groups of organisms of the same species that live in the same place at the same time
Ecosystem
A collection of different communities as well as abiotic factors
The sun
Ultimate energy source for all living organisms
Autotroph (producer)
Organism that is able to make its own food
Decomposer
Breaks down dead organic matter
10%
Amount of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next
Mutualism
Two species live together...both benefit
Predator-prey relationship
One species hunts and kills another species
Omnivore
Eats both plants and animals
Exponential growth
Logistic growth
Pioneer species
The first organisms to grow successfully in a newly formed rock formation
Primary succession
Secondary succession
Climax community
Form when succession slows down and a stable community is established. Little to no species change
Carnivore
Eats only meat
Herbivore
Eats only plants
Heterotroph (consumer)
Organism that must eat other organisms for food/energy
Parasitism
Two organisms live together...one is benefited while the other is harmed
Commensalism
Two organisms live together...one is benefited while the other is unaffected
Soil bacteria
Responsible for "fixing nitrogen" and recycling it back into the atmosphere
Carrying capacity
The maximum number of organisms that an environment can support
Ecological succession
The regular progression of species replacement in an environment
Limiting factors
Components of an environment that can reduce a population size
Community
A collection of all of the various populations occupying a single area
Nitrogen
Makes up 80% of the atmosphere
Nitrification
Process of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into nitrates
Denitrification
Process of converting nitrates into atmospheric nitrogen (N2)
Decomposer
Breaks down dead organic matter
Producer
Organisms that make their own food (autotrophs).
Primary Consumer
Organisms that eat autotrophs. They are herbivores.
Secondary Consumer
Largely feed on primary consumers. Includes omnivores and carnivores.
Tertiary Consumer
Largely feeds on carnivores or secondary consumers.
Apex Predator
Each food chain end with a top predator, an animal with no natural enemies.
biome
a very large ecological areas on the earth's surface, with animals and plants adapting to their environment
ecosystem
everything that exists in a particular environment; living and non-living (abiotic factors)
pyramid of energy
a graphical model of energy flow in a community
shaped like pyramids because of the loss of energy between different levels
community
groups of different species interacting in an area
species
a group of animals or plants that are similar and can reproduce (have babies)
food chain
a series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food
trophic level
organisms are on the same level of the food chain; have the same function (both mice and ants eat grass-primary consumer)
Organisms in a food web can occupy more than one trophic level

organisms should be positioned at their highest trophic level
biotic factors
Anything in an ecosystem that originates from living things
interactions between organisms
population
a group of organisms of the same species that live in a place
food web
a series of organisms related by predator-prey and consumer-resource interactions
1. Organisms can have more than one food source
2. Organisms can have more than one predator
abiotic factors
Non-living chemical and physical parts of an environment
Environmental conditions
some examples include
Light (sun)
temperature,
salinity,
rainfall,
wind velocity,
soil pH,
niche
the way in which an organism fits into an ecological community or ecosystem
nutrient cycle
when organic and inorganic material change back to living matter
producers
use photosynthesis (using light energy) or chemosynthesis (using chemical energy) to make organic compounds
consumer
organisms of a food chain that get energy by eating other organisms
inorganic nutrients
nutrients that do not have carbon (water and minerals)
autotroph
synthesise organic molecules from simple inorganic substances
Make their own food from non-living substances
saprotrophs
an organism that feeds on decaying organic matter

an organism that lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion.
detritivores
an animal which feeds on dead organic material
heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food and instead gets its food and energy by taking in organic substances, usually plant or animal matter

They eat other living things
Can be classified by their feeding patterns
trophic efficiency
percentage (%) of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next
ten percent rule
an average of 10% of energy is passed on to the next trophic level
detritus
the pieces that are left (i.e. when a living organism dies)
habitat
the environment where a species normally lives, or the location of a living organism
ecology
the study of the relationship between living organisms, or between living organisms and their environment
symbiosis
when two organisms interact and are together
mutualims
symbiosis when both organisms benefit
commensalism
symbiosis when one organism benefits and the other doesn't either benefit nor harm
parasitism
a parasite lives within or on something else
intraspecific
within species
interspecific
between species
primary consumers
feed on producers and hence occupy the second trophic level
secondary consumer
eat primary consumer
trietary consumer
eat secondary consumer
photoautotrophic
they use sunlight as a source of energy
This makes light the initial source of energy for almost all communities
Pyramid of Biomass
shows the total mass of organisms at each stage of a food chain
A pyramid of numbers
shows the relative number of organisms at each stage of a food chain
Shaped like pyramid because less organisms higher the trophic level
swamp
An area of low-lying, uncultivated ground where water collects; a bog or marsh.
vaporize
Convert or be converted into vapour.
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