75 terms



Terms in this set (...)

The largest level of ecological organization
Abiotic factor
Nonliving factor inside an ecosystem
Groups of organisms of the same species that live in the same place at the same time
A collection of different communities as well as abiotic factors
The sun
Ultimate energy source for all living organisms
Autotroph (producer)
Organism that is able to make its own food
Breaks down dead organic matter
Amount of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next
Two species live together...both benefit
Predator-prey relationship
One species hunts and kills another species
Eats both plants and animals
Exponential growth
Logistic growth
Pioneer species
The first organisms to grow successfully in a newly formed rock formation
Primary succession
Secondary succession
Climax community
Form when succession slows down and a stable community is established. Little to no species change
Eats only meat
Eats only plants
Heterotroph (consumer)
Organism that must eat other organisms for food/energy
Two organisms live together...one is benefited while the other is harmed
Two organisms live together...one is benefited while the other is unaffected
Soil bacteria
Responsible for "fixing nitrogen" and recycling it back into the atmosphere
Carrying capacity
The maximum number of organisms that an environment can support
Ecological succession
The regular progression of species replacement in an environment
Limiting factors
Components of an environment that can reduce a population size
A collection of all of the various populations occupying a single area
Makes up 80% of the atmosphere
Process of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into nitrates
Process of converting nitrates into atmospheric nitrogen (N2)
Breaks down dead organic matter
Organisms that make their own food (autotrophs).
Primary Consumer
Organisms that eat autotrophs. They are herbivores.
Secondary Consumer
Largely feed on primary consumers. Includes omnivores and carnivores.
Tertiary Consumer
Largely feeds on carnivores or secondary consumers.
Apex Predator
Each food chain end with a top predator, an animal with no natural enemies.
a very large ecological areas on the earth's surface, with animals and plants adapting to their environment
everything that exists in a particular environment; living and non-living (abiotic factors)
pyramid of energy
a graphical model of energy flow in a community
shaped like pyramids because of the loss of energy between different levels
groups of different species interacting in an area
a group of animals or plants that are similar and can reproduce (have babies)
food chain
a series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food
trophic level
organisms are on the same level of the food chain; have the same function (both mice and ants eat grass-primary consumer)
Organisms in a food web can occupy more than one trophic level

organisms should be positioned at their highest trophic level
biotic factors
Anything in an ecosystem that originates from living things
interactions between organisms
a group of organisms of the same species that live in a place
food web
a series of organisms related by predator-prey and consumer-resource interactions
1. Organisms can have more than one food source
2. Organisms can have more than one predator
abiotic factors
Non-living chemical and physical parts of an environment
Environmental conditions
some examples include
Light (sun)
wind velocity,
soil pH,
the way in which an organism fits into an ecological community or ecosystem
nutrient cycle
when organic and inorganic material change back to living matter
use photosynthesis (using light energy) or chemosynthesis (using chemical energy) to make organic compounds
organisms of a food chain that get energy by eating other organisms
inorganic nutrients
nutrients that do not have carbon (water and minerals)
synthesise organic molecules from simple inorganic substances
Make their own food from non-living substances
an organism that feeds on decaying organic matter

an organism that lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion.
an animal which feeds on dead organic material
An organism that cannot make its own food and instead gets its food and energy by taking in organic substances, usually plant or animal matter

They eat other living things
Can be classified by their feeding patterns
trophic efficiency
percentage (%) of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next
ten percent rule
an average of 10% of energy is passed on to the next trophic level
the pieces that are left (i.e. when a living organism dies)
the environment where a species normally lives, or the location of a living organism
the study of the relationship between living organisms, or between living organisms and their environment
when two organisms interact and are together
symbiosis when both organisms benefit
symbiosis when one organism benefits and the other doesn't either benefit nor harm
a parasite lives within or on something else
within species
between species
primary consumers
feed on producers and hence occupy the second trophic level
secondary consumer
eat primary consumer
trietary consumer
eat secondary consumer
they use sunlight as a source of energy
This makes light the initial source of energy for almost all communities
Pyramid of Biomass
shows the total mass of organisms at each stage of a food chain
A pyramid of numbers
shows the relative number of organisms at each stage of a food chain
Shaped like pyramid because less organisms higher the trophic level
An area of low-lying, uncultivated ground where water collects; a bog or marsh.
Convert or be converted into vapour.

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