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raw data

numbers and categories that have been collected but have not yet been processed in any way

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variable

a characteristic that can differ from one individual to the next

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observational unit

a single individual who participates in a study

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sample data

measurements that are taken from a subset of a population

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sample size

the total number of observational units

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dataset

the complete set of raw data, for all observational units and variables in a survey or experiment

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population data

measurements that are taken from all individuals of a population

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statistic

a summary measure computed from sample data

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parameter

a summary measure for an entire population

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descriptive statistics

the summary numbers for either a population or sample

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categorical variable

consists of a group or category names that don't necessarily have any logical ordering; each individual only falls into one category

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ordinal variable

a categorical variable that may be used to describe the data when a categorical variable has ordered categories

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quantitative variable

raw data that are recorded as numerical values (either measurements or counts)

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continuous variable

a type of quantitative variable that is used when every value within some interval is a possible result

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explanatory variable

the value of which for an individual is thought to partially explain the value of the response variable for that same individual

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response variable

a variable that is an effect of another variable

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frequency

count of how many observations fall into a category

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relative frequency

the proportion or percentage in a category relative to the total count over all categories

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frequency distribution

the listing of all categories along with their frequencies

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relative frequency distribution

a listing of all categories along with relative frequencies (given a proportions or percentages)

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pie charts

visual representations that are useful for summarizing a single categorical variable if there aren't too many categories

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bar graphs

visual representations that are useful for summarizing one or two categorical variables; especially useful for comparing two categorical variables

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distribution

the overall pattern of how often the possible values occur

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location

on a distribution, this is represented by the center or the average

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median

approximate middle value of data

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mean

the arithmetic average of data

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variability

on a distribution, the spread among individual measurements

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shape

on a distribution, can be clumped or skewed; describes the graph

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outliers

data points that are not consistent with the bulk of the data

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histogram

similar to a bar graph, though not extremely informative when the sample size is small

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stem-and-leaf plots

present all individual values; can be overwhelming for large datasets

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boxplot

displays information in a five-number summary; useful for comparing multiple groups and identifying outliers

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right

a graph is skewed to the _______ if higher values are more spread out than lower values

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left

a graph is skewed to the _______ if lower values are more spread out than higher values

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mode

the most frequent value

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unimodal

if there is a single prominent peak in a histogram, stemplot, or dotplot

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range

the highest value minus the lowest value

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interquartile range

upper quartile - lower quartile

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resistant statistic

a numerical summary of the data that is "resistant" to the influence of outliers, meaning outliers won't have a major influence on a statistic's numerical value

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first summary number

the mean of a bell-shaped distribution

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second summary number

the standard deviation of a bell-shaped distribution

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standard deviation

the measure of the spread of values, represented by s; the average distance that values fall from the mean

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variance

the squared value of the standard deviation

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empirical rule

68% of values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean in either direction; 95% of values fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean in either direction; 99.7% of values fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean in either direction

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