Chapter 6: Water Rescue Skills

Red cross lifeguarding course vocab from chapter 6.
General procedures for a water emergency
Activate the EAP
-enter the water, if necessary
-perform an appropriate rescue
-move victim to a safe exit point
-remove the victim from the water
-provide emergency care as needed
-report, advise, & release
Factors to consider when entering water to perform a rescue
-water depth
-location & condition of the victim
-location of other swimmers
-design of the lifeguard station
-your location
-facility set-up & type of equipment used
Four core objectives in any rescue situation
-ensure the safety of the victim, yourself, & others in the vicinity (entry, approach, rescue, removal, & care provided)
-use a rescue technique that is appropriate & effective for the situation
-provide an appropriate assessment, always treating life-threatening conditions first
-handle the rescue w/ a sense of urgency
The type of entry used depends on
-depth of water
-height/position of the lifeguard station
-obstacles in the water, such as people, lane lines, & safety lines
-location/condition of the victim
-type of rescue equipment
-design of the facility
Slide-in entry
-slower than other entries
-safest in most conditions
-useful in shallow water, crowded pools, or when a victim w/ a head, neck or spinal injury is close to the side of the pool
Stride jump
-use only if the water is at least 5 ft deep & you are no more than 3 ft above the water
Compact jump
-can be used to enter water from the deck or from a height
-if jumping from a height (when you're more than 3 ft above the water), the water must be at least 5 ft deep
Run-and-swim entry
-to enter the water from a gradual slope-zero-depth area, use the run-and-swim entry
Objective of an assist
to safely & effectively help a victim who is struggling in the water & move him/her to safety
Assists may be required to help a patron:
-stand up b/c he/she is small or has been thrown off balance
-get to the surface when he/she is submerged in shallow water
-enter & exit an attraction
-get in or out of inner tubes or rafts
-reach shallow water or a ladder when he or she is tired
Simple assist
-can be used in shallow water
-helping someone stand up
-may be used to rescue a victim who is submerged in shallow water & w/in reach
Reaching assist from the deck
-for a distressed swimmer who is close to the side of the pool
-extend a rescue tube w/in the victim's grasp
Active victim front rescue
-for a drowning victim who is facing toward you
-Approach the victim from the front.
As you near the victim, grab the rescue tube
from under your arms with both hands and
begin to push the tube out in front of you.
Continue kicking to maintain momentum.
Thrust the rescue tube slightly under
water and into the victim's chest, keeping
the tube between you and the victim.
Encourage the victim to grab the rescue
tube and hold onto it. Keep kicking, fully extend your arms and move the victim to a safe exit point. Change direction, if needed.
Active victim rear rescue
-for a drowning victim who is facing away from you
-Approach the victim from behind with the
rescue tube across your chest.
With both arms, reach under the victim's
armpits and grasp the shoulders firmly. Tell
the victim that you are there to help and
continue to reassure the victim throughout
the rescue. Using your chest, squeeze the rescue tube between your chest and the victim's back. Keep your head to one side to avoid being hit by the victim's head if it moves backwards. Lean back and pull the victim onto the rescue tube. Use the rescue tube to support the victim so that the victim's mouth and nose are out of the water. Tow the victim to a safe exit point.
Passive victim rear rescue
-for a drowning victim who is face-down at/near the surface in a vertical-to-horizontal position, seems unconscious, & is not suspected of having a head, neck, or spinal injury
-approach from behind, reach under armpits grasp shoulders, squeeze tube between, roll by dipping shoulder underwater, support on tube, tow to safety
In-water ventilations
use if you cannot immediately remove the victim or if doing so will delay care
Quick removal from shallow water for a small victim
-if you have rescued a passive/unconscious person who is smaller than you & a backboard is not immediately available
-place the victim on the side, get yourself out of the water, & begin providing care
-DO NOT use if a spinal injury is suspected & victim is breathing & backboard is on the way
Submerged victim in deep water
Feet first surface dive. you = behind victim
Reach one arm under victim's arm (Across chest)
Reach up with other hand put towline in hand holding victim
Pull tube down, tilt victim back
Put tube between chest and victim's back
if they become active just keep holding them
Reach free arm over tube and grab under pit. both hands under pits.
get to exit. get victim out. assess and care