31 terms

UK Notes

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Great Britain
England, Scotland, and Wales
United Kingdom
Great Britain + Northern Ireland
Magna Carta
1215: protection against absolute power and arbitrary acts; trial by jury, due process, and protection of private property (often ignored)
Petition of Right
1628: trial by jury, rule of law, tax only with Parliament's consent, no martial law during peace
Bill of Rights and Glorious Revolution
1688-1689: consent of Parliament for most acts of monarch; free elections, right to petition king
Great Reform Acts
1830-1834: increased size of electorate and reformed election procedures
Parliament Act of 1911
1911: supremacy of House of Commons; HoL can only delay bills for one year; five year terms for HoC
Beveridge Plan - Five Giant Evils
1941: want; squalor; ignorance; disease; idleness
Collective Consensus
1945: establishment of welfare state (NHS) and commitment to Keynesian economics and state intervention; dismantling of British Empire
Economic Crisis
1979: decline in industrial production, loss of colonies, oil prices, labor union demands
Winter of Discontent
1979: widespread strikes lead to Thatcher's victory
Evolutionary Democracy
legitimacy based on tradition and rational-legal authority
Welfare State
set of public policies designed to provide for citizens' needs through provision of pensions, health care, unemployment insurance, and assistance to the poor
Margaret Thatcher
Conservative Party; 1979-1990; blamed weakened economy on socialist policies; privatized business and industry; cut back on social welfare programs; tough on labor unions; returned market force controls on economy; neoliberalist policies
Neoliberalism
revival of classic liberal values that promote free competition among businesses within the market, including reduced government regulation and social spending
Tony Blair
Labour Party; 1997-2007; removed voting rights of hereditary peers in HoL; seen as GWB's "puppy"
David Cameron
Conservative Party; 2010-present; reached out to youth; election was hung Parliament
Hung Parliament
when no party has a majority of seats in Parliament
Big Society
wide-ranging initiatives to empower ordinary citizens to take control over their lives; shift power downward from state to communities/citizens
Austerity
series of sustained reductions in public spending; aimed at reducing welfare state and reducing deficits
Constitutional Monarchy
reigns but does not rule' all the power but no power; head of state is PM; gives "royal assent" to bills
Prime Minister
MP and leader of majority party; serves only as long as he/she is leader of majority party; chooses cabinet and shapes policy for government
Cabinet
center of policy making; members are party leaders from Parliament chosen by PM; "collective responsibility" - don't vote and publicly support PM's decisions; not policy experts
Bicameral Legislature
two houses; House of Lords (upper) and House of Commons (lower)
House of Lords
about 800 members; life peers, hereditary peers, and lords spiritual; debate, refine, amend, delay, but not block legislation
How a Bill Becomes an Act
First Reading -> Second Reading -> Committee -> Report Stage -> Third Reading -> "Ping Pong" -> Royal Assent
Supreme Court
established in 2009; final court of appeal for civil cases; hears appeals in criminal cases from England, Wales, and Northern Ireland; determines devolution issues; ensures laws are consistent with EU laws and European Convention on Human Rights; cannot overturn any primary legislation made by Parliament
Social Cleavages
multi-national identities (English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish), religion (Catholics vs. Protestants), ethnic minorities (Indian, Pakistani, Afro-Caribbean, Black); social class; geographic-economic
Social Classes
precariat; traditional working class; emergent service workers; technical middles class; new affluent workers; established middle class; elite
Quangos
quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organizations; created by Parliament to put government and private interests together on policymaking board
British Values
devotion to justice and fair play; human and civil rights for all; acceptance of class distinctions and social mobility; equal representation; civilian government; pragmatism and cooperation; tolerance; both community and individual responsibility; honesty and transparency in government and business; acceptance of activist government