ANT 252 Exam 2
Terms in this set (93)
Description of a language - the way a sentence is formed or a verb conjugated.
History of languages- the way languages change over time
The study of language in its social setting/looks at relationships between social and linguistic variation, or language in its social context.
The relationship between a language and culture
primary means of communication (spoken or written)
What is language based on?
arbitrary, learned associations between words and what they represent
How is language transmitted?
through learning as part of enculturation where, through language, people share experiences, concerns, and beliefs and communicate these to the next generation
a sign with a meaning that is made up by us humans
Closed system of symbols
A set of symbols that cannot be combined with others to make further meaning, like a cat meowing and a cat hissing
Open system of symbols
A set of symbols that can be combined for further meaning, like smoke + fog = smog.
consists of body motions used to convey messages
consists of extralinguistic noises involving various voice qualities and vocalizations.
consist of a limited number of sounds that are produced in response to specific stimuli (e.g., food or danger).
what chimpanzees are taught to communicate with, geometric figure symbols used for symbolic communication
The ability of humans to communicate symbolically about distant time and space.
Using established structures, sounds can be combined in novel forms to meet new challenges.
a chimpanzee, acquired vocabulary of more than 100 ASL signs.
who lived and conversed with her foster family until she was introduced to the wild, where she was killed by poachers.
transmission through learning, basic to language/Nonhuman primates have tried to teach ASL to other animals.
explains why humans speak but chimps do not
Determines how simple sounds are organized to form units of meaning in sentence structure (phonemes/ morphemes).
Determines how words are put together to form statements and manner in which minimum units of meaning (morphemes) are combined
Dictionary containing all morphemes and their meanings
Study and analysis of sounds
the study of human speech sounds in general
studies only the significant sound contrasts of a given language
a sound contrast that makes a difference in meaning
The smallest combination of sounds in human speech that carry a meaning
the use of the body to communicate with gestures, posture, and facial expressions.
the study of the use of space in communication
How, or if, we tell time differs from culture to culture
When someone sneezes in our culture, we almost automatically say "Bless you" or even "God bless you"
grammatical categories of different languages lead their speakers to think about things in different ways
Human brain contains limited set of rules for organizing language giving all languages a common structural basis. He calls this set of rules a universal grammar
investigates the long-term change of language by studying contemporary "daughter languages" through which features of past languages, even "protolanguages," may be reconstructed
those that descend from same parent language that have been changing separately.
The beginnings of new languages and the original language from which daughter languages descend
study of lexical (vocabulary) categories and contrasts/the study of linguistic categorization of meaningful difference, such as in the linguistic terms and contrasts of classification systems, taxonomies, and specialized terminologies like kinship terminology and medicine
specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are important to certain groups
refers to a language's meaning system
pronunciation clearly associated with prestige
linguistic practices symbolic capital that properly trained people convert into economic and social capital
varying speech in different contexts
regular style shifts between "high" and "low" variants of same language
terms used with people, often by being added to their names, which may convey or imply a (relational) status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed
Black English Venacular (BEV)
relatively uniform dialect spoken by the majority of black youth in most parts of the U.S. today"
categorizing people into a group on physical or a biological basis
discrimination against a racial or ethnics group based on biology
Ten things everyone should know about race
1. Race is a modern idea
2. Race has no genetic basis
3. Human subspecies don't exist
4. Skin color really is only skin deep
5. Most variation is within
6. Slavery Predates the idea of race
7. Race and freedom evolved together
8. Race justified social inequalities as natural
9. Race isn't biological, but racism is real
10. Colorblindness won't end racism
automatically assigns children to same group as minority parent
Rules of descent
assigns social identity on basis of ancestry
any position that determines where someone fits in society
little or no choice about occupying status
gained through choices, actions, efforts, talents, or accomplishments
members share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms because of their common background
identification with an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of their affiliation
an identifiable cultural characteristic
devaluing a group because of its assumed behavior, values, capabilities, or attributes
practiced but not legally sanctioned
part of the law
removing groups who are culturally different from a country
people who are forced or who have chosen to flee a country
internal domination by one group and its culture or ideology over others
deliberate elimination of a group
destruction of cultures of certain ethnic groups
dominant group forces an ethnic group to adopt the dominant culture
referring to an organized system of political, economic, and military control within a geographically bounded space
not only a geographically bounded state; its population shares a sense of culture and ancestry
as the sense of pride in that nation
ascribed status associated with a position in social-political hierarchy
groups that have, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political status.
society combining ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization, and economic interdependence
ethnic boundaries most stable and enduring when groups occupy different ecological niches
view of cultural diversity as valuable and worth maintaining
how culture effects it and how it effects culture
The study of the interaction of cultures with their environments
having three components used to manipulate the environment: knowledge, skills, tools
Region that is similar in environment
that group of characteristics that play a part in the society's pattern of subsistence
a strategy that involves collecting wild plants and animal foods
Slash and Burn Farming
the removal of plant materials by cutting and burning preparatory to planting
Stay in one place for long periods of time, typically until the soil is exhausted
Subsistence that relies on raising herds of domesticated animals, such as cattle, sheep, and goats.
A subsistence strategy based on intensive, continuous use of land for the production of plant foods
A system of exchange in which wealth is reallocated;found in chiefdom and state societies
The trading of goods and services through the use of currency
Elaborate feasts in which the chiefs give away many of their possessions
Division of Labor
Deciding who does what job is important in any economic system
Early theoretical school that postulated that all cultures proceeded through a series of successive stages
A model of cultural evolution based on types of technology and food-procurement strategies, and the sociocultural adaptations that resulted from them
An evolutionary model of culture emphasizing different development patterns for societies in different habitats
The Ecological Model
A model that views a culture as part of a larger global ecological system with each aspect of the system interacting with all of the other parts
The Evolutionary-Ecological Model
A paradigm of human culture that combines both the neoevolutionary and ecological perspectives