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Carbohydrates

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Organic Molecule
A molecule that is normally found in or produced by living systems
Monosaccharide
One sugar molecule. Glucose, fructose, and galactose
Disaccharide
Two sugar molecules. Maltose, sucrose, and lactose
Polysaccharides
Have a lot of sugar molecules. Starch, glycogen, cellulose
Molecular formula for glucose
C6H12O6
Alpha glucose
-OH group that points downwards away from the ring
Beta glucose
-OH group on carbon 1 is above the ring
The disaccharide produced in a reaction between two alpha glucose molecules
Sucrose (glucose and fructose)
The name of the link (bond) found between two alpha glucose molecules
Glycosidic bond
Polysaccharide starch exists in two different structural forms
Amylose and Amylopectin
Amylose
...
Amylopectin
...
Glucose
Monosaccharide, fuel or energy source
Galactose
Monosaccharide, energy source
Fructose
Monosaccharide, energy source, fruit sugar
Sucrose
Disaccharide, glucose and fructose, energy source, table sugar
Lactose
Disaccharide, glucose and galactose, energy source, milk sugar
Maltose
Disaccharide, digests starch, malt sugar, glucose and glucose
Starch
Polysaccharide, energy source, insoluble storage or carbohydrates (Plants)
Glycogen
Polysaccharide, energy source, short term, made in muscles and liver (Animals)
Cellulose
Polysaccharide, support and protect plants in cell walls, insoluble