Terms in this set (34)
Michelle is going to be rewarded for completing a task, no matter how well (or poorly) it is done. This is the best definition of
After his psychology class, Albert tells his professor that she is an exceptional teacher and that he thinks she made the material interesting ad engaging. Assuming that he is behaving insincerely, which of the following self-presentational tactics is Albert using
Complete the following analogy. Behavioral self-handicapping: ___:: reported self-handicapping:___
using drugs and alcohol; blaming bad mood and test anxiety
Robert sits down and writes out a list of all of the reasons he is in love with Eunice. As he is trying to make his list, he finds himself writing criticisms of their relationship as well, such as "We have very little in common." His list indicates that perhaps he should break up with Eunice, yet his heart tells him they share a special connection. According to information from the text about reasons-generated attitude change, what should Robert do?
Listen to his heart and initial attitude-- Stay with Eunice
Sebastian sits behind Mark in economics class. One day, an argument starts between Mark and the professor. When asked who he thought was responsible for the argument, who will Sebastian say is more responsible for the argument?
According to research on the overjustification effect,why would high course grades be very unlikely to undermine intrinsic motivation to learn? Grades
are based on both skill and motivation
When Daphne goes on an interview, she does her best to present herself well and put her best foot forward. Which function of the self is exemplified in this situation?
If you are experiencing physiological arousal (heart pounding, feeling warm and a bit shaky), according to the two-factor theory of emotion, what would you do next to provide an interpretation of the arousal?
look for cues from the environment
If you were to design a program using rewards to increase motivation, what type of rewards would it be the best to use, according to the authors of your text?
Recall that Dutton and Aron had an attractive female confederate approach men either on a high, narrow, swaying suspension bridge, or else on the other side of the bridge where they were sitting. In thinking about processes of misattribution of arousal, which group of men was more likely to call the confederate later and ask her for a date?
Those who were approached on the bridge
Pablo had always gotten much satisfaction out of caring for his brothers and sisters when they were sick. A few months ago, Pablo's father convinced him to take a job at a hospital as a nurse's aide so that he could earn money doing what he enjoyed. Now that Pablo has been working at the hospital for a while, he no longer enjoys caring for sick people as much as he did before he took the job. One reason for Pablo's attitude change may be that the job has undermined his ________ for helping others.
Who is most likely to enjoy a boring and lackluster rock and roll concert performed by washed-up, fifty-something "has beens"?
The authors of your text suggest people from both Eastern and Western cultures share which aspect of the fundamental attribution error?
Both cultures make initial, automatic dispositional attributions.
You've recently learned that eating avocados, which you love, is bad for your health. To reduce the dissonance you experience after reading this news, you would most likely
Lisa is most likely to conclude that she likes classical music when
she has preset her car radio to a classical music station.
According to information presented in the textbook, researchers found that in order to feel more optimistic about their own futures, cancer patients engage in
downward social comparison.
Rudy thinks that if he ever got kicked off the football team he would be depressed for months, and that his life would lose all meaning. In actuality, his response would probably not be this severe or prolonged. What is Rudy demonstrating?
the impact bias
Researchers have found that couples who are happy in their marriages make very different attributions for their partners' behaviors than couples who are unhappy. Specifically, couples in happy marriages make ________, while couples in unhappy marriages make ________.
external attributions for negative behavior and internal attributions for positive behavior; internal attributions for negative behavior and external for positive.
When people in Western cultures learn about the interdependent view of the self and people in Asian cultures learn of the independent view of the self, what is the typical reaction?
Many have difficulty understanding how the others could view the world in such a way.
Self-perception theory argues that when our attitudes or feelings aren't clear, we often infer them by observing
our own behavior
Shellie has a growth mindset. She has just found out that she did poorly on an exam. Which of the following is she most likely to do?
try even harder to succeed
When asked to finish a sentence beginning "I am...," respondents from Asian countries are more likely to mention ________, because they grew up in a(n) ________ culture.
group membership; interdependent
Because dissonance reduction processes are mostly unconscious, people
often will overestimate how badly negative feedback may affect them.
In Japan, you can rent fake guests for a wedding, a fake audience for a public lecture, and fake mourners for a funeral. These "convenience agencies" (benriya) exist because
the Japanese are very concerned with avoiding the public embarrassment of not having "enough" attendees at social events.
In Korea and Egypt, men can be seen holding hands and walking closely with other men. This behavior indicates that the men are
It's Halloween, but you don't want to be running back and forth to answer the door. To avoid any "tricks," you decide to leave a large container of candy on the porch. You've just read about self-awareness theory, and you have a hunch about how to keep greedy trick-or-treaters from taking more than their fair share of the candy. You decide to
place a large mirror behind the candy, so that children can see themselves as they approach.
Darwin believed that emotional expressions began as ________ that came to have evolutionary value because they ________.`
physiological reactions; convey emotional states to other members of the species
Emre has a baby face. Noam just met him. What is Noam likely to think about Emre?
"He's a very warm and naïve person."
Talia loves animals but still eats meat. When she experiences dissonance about the contradiction, she tells herself that she also volunteers her time at an animal shelter. This manner of reducing dissonance involves
The two factors necessary to experience an emotion according to Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion are
physiological arousal and appropriate explanation.
When people are distracted, they are more likely to fall prey to the fundamental attribution error. This occurs because internal attributions arise from ________, whereas external attributions arise from ________.
automatic processes; controlled processes
Which of the following is most likely to increase intrinsic motivation?
Based on the idea of overjustification, if you have a group of children who already enjoy reading which of the following would be most likely to decrease their intrinsic motivation?
rewarding them for each book they read
According to research mentioned in this chapter, when researchers discontinued rewards and prizes, why did elementary school children spend less time playing math games? The children probably reasoned,
"If I no longer win prizes, why should I play with these games?"
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