Terms in this set (55)
The fat and non-fat components of the human body; important in assessing recommended body weight
Proportional amount of fat in the body based on the person's total weight; includes both essential fat and storage fat; also termed fat mass
Percent body fat
Body weight without body fat
Lean body mass
Body weight at which there seems to be no harm to human health; healthy weight.
Recommended body weight
An excess amount of weight against a given standard, such as height or recommended percent body fat.
An excessive accumulation of body fat, usually at least 30 percent above recommended body weight.
Minimal amount of body fat needed for normal physiological functions; constitutes about 3 percent of total weight in men and 12 percent in women
body fat in excess of essential fat; stored in adipose tissue
Method to assess body composition that uses very low-dose beams of x-ray energy to measure total body fat mass, fat distribution pattern, and bone density
Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
Underwater technique to assess body composition; considered the most accurate of the body composition assessment techniques
having a fear of water
Technique to assess body composition by calculating the body volume from the air replaced by an individual sitting inside a small chamber
commercial name of the equipment used to assess body composition through the air displacement technique
techniques to measure body girths at different sites
technique to assess body composition by measuring a double thickness of skin at specific body sites.
deposits of fat directly under the skin
technique to assess body composition by measuring circumference at specific body sites
Technique to assess body composition by running a weak electrical current through the body.
Technique to determine thinness and excessive fatness that incorporates height and weight to estimate critical fat values at which the risk for disease increases
Body mass index (BMI)
Extremely low body weight
Obesity pattern seen in individuals who tend to store fat in the trunk or abdominal area
Obesity pattern seen in people who store fat primarily around the hips and thighs
Where does the body store fat?
in adipose tissue, mostly just beneath the skin and around major organs in the body
How does air in the lungs affect hydrostatic weighing results?
leaving additional air in the lungs makes a person more buoyant. Because fat is less dense than water, overweight individuals weigh less in water. Additional air in the lungs makes a person lighter in water, yielding a false, higher body fat percentage
How accurate are anthropometric measurements?
good 3.5 to 4
Why is it important to test and retest with skinfold calipers the same time of day?
because changes in water hydration from activity and exercise can affect skinfold girth
Which test is simpler to use, girth or skinfold measurements?
Which is more accurate bioelectrical or girth measurements?
BMI is least accurate for what type of individuals?
athletes with a large amount of muscle mass
What is the annual weight gain for adults?
1 to 2 pounds after age 25
Know healthy fat % for men and women. Table 4.10
What is the essential fat % for men and women?
What happens to lean tissue (muscle) with inactivity?
What are the functions of stored fat?
1. As an insulator to retain body heat
2. As energy substrate for metabolism
3. As padding against physical trauma to the body
Are there differences in the amount of stored fat between men and women?
the amount of storage fat does not differ between men and women
Where do men and women store fat generally?
men tend to store fat around the waist and women around the hips and thighs
What technique for measuring body composition is the standard research and medical method?
What technique for measuring body composition is the most difficult and time consuming?
Which method is most often used in exercise physiology labs? .
Hydrostatic- Gold standard
During hydrostatic weighing how does underwater weight compare between over fat and lower fat individuals?
fat is less dense than water, overweight individuals weigh less in water
Be familiar with Bod Pod technique
computerized pressure sensors determine the amount of air displaced by the person inside the chamber. Body volume is calculated by subtracting the air volume with the person inside the chamber from the volume of the person inside the chamber from the volume of the empty chamber. Residual lung volume needs to be taken into account
What two methods of measurement technique are called anthropometric?
girth and skinfold
Know skinfold measurement sites for men and women.
Women: triceps, suprailium, and thigh skinfolds
Men: chest, abdomen, and thigh
When using girth measurements what body types are measured most and least accurately?
is that is may not be valid for athletic individuals who participate actively in strenuous physical activity or for people who can be classified visually as thin or obese
What is the primary weakness of using BMI?
doesn't measure body composition
Know strengths and weaknesses for using bioelectrical impedance and how it works.
sensors are applied to the skin and a week electrical current is run through the body to measure its electrical resistance which is then used to estimate body fat, lean body mass, and body water. Strength: simple to administer
Weakness: one equation can not match everyone, hydration, and body temperature
Know healthy and unhealthy BMI numbers. 4.7
Why is BMI so widely used?
What fraction of adults in the US have a BMI of 30 or more?
When a previously inactive person starts an exercise program what are the changes in weight and body composition that are possible?
gain more weight through muscle
Where is the most dangerous site for fat storage?
around body wall
Know how to calculate fat mass and lean body mass and how to determine a recommended body weight.
Know the safe-unsafe waist circumference numbers for men and women table 4.6
How does waist circumference compare when predicting disease risk against BMI and waist-to-hip ratio?
waist-to-hip ratio, because the obese individuals with abdominal fat higher risk from chronic diseases
How much lean tissue does a person lose on average from age 25?