55 terms

APES - Friedland and Relyea Chapter 8


Terms in this set (...)

Oceanic Plates
Lie underneath ocean. Dense and rich in iron
Subsurface Mining
Tunnels within mountain where people go in.
Placer Mining
Process of looking for metals and precious stones in river sediments
Mountaintop Removal
Miners remove entire top of a mountain with explosives
Open pit mining
Create large pit or hole in ground to mine
Mining Spoils/Tailings
Unwanted waste material created during mining.
Strip Mining
Minerals close to the surface, remove soil and rock to expose them, then return unwanted waste material.
Elements with properties that conduct electricity and heat
Crustal Abundance
Average Concentration of an element in the crust
Economically valuable concentrated accumulations of minerals.
Soil Degradation
Loss of some or all of the ability of soils to support plant growth.
Base Saturation
Measure of proportion of soil bases to soil acids
Cation Exchange Capacity
Ability of a soil to absorb and release cations. Determined by clay. Higher is better, but higher decreases porosity, therefore, there's a tradeoff.
Texture of soil
Determined by percentage of sand, silt, and clay
C Horizon
Least weathered. Most similar to parent material
B Horizon
Mineral material, little organic matter
E Horizon
Leaches organic acids from above layers to B where they accumulate
A Horizon
Topsoil. Organic material and minerals
O Horizon
Top layer. Organic horizon and detritus.
Parent Material
Rock material underlying a soil
Mix of geologic and organic components
Accumulation or depositing of eroded material
Physical removal of rock fragments from a landscape or ecosystem
Acid Precipitation
Acid rain. Sulfur Dioxide reacts with water vapor to form sulfuric acid in rain.
Chemical Weathering
Breakdown of rocks and minerals by chemical reactions and dissolving of a rocks chemical elements. Alters newly exposed/primary minerals to make secondary minerals.
Physical Weathering
Mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals. Water, wind, or temp. Plants or burrowing animals can contribute. Exposing more surface area and makes more vulnerable to more erosion.
Metamorphic Rocks
Other rick types subjected to high temps and pressure causing physical and chemical changes. Pressure creates distorted bands called foliation.
Sedimentary Rocks
Form by sediments like muds, sands, and gravels compressed by overlying sediments. Can be uniform or different. Contains the most fossils.
Cracks caused by stress after cooling
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Magma cools on surface, cools rapidly, minerals don't separate
Intrusive Igneous
Cools inside Earth underground. Many colors, cools slowly, minerals separate.
Igneous Rocks
Forms directly from magma. Classified by composition and mode of formation
Solid, Crystalline, Specific chemical structure, certain formations, uniform
Rock Cycle
Constant formation and destruction of rock.
Richter Scale
Measure of ground movement in an earthquake. Logarithmic scale.
Exact point on Earth's surface directly above where rock ruptures
Seismic Activity
Areas with earthquakes and fault activity
Rocks of the lithosphere rupture unexpectedly along a fault. Common in fault zones.
Fault Zones
Large expanses of rock where movement had occurred where plates meet.
Fracture in rock across which there is movement
Transform Fault Boundary
Plates move sideways past each other.
Convergent Plate Boundaries
Plates move towards one another. Continental + Continental= Mountains. Oceanic goes under land, forms mountains and volcanos. Oceanic goes under other oceanic.
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Magma pushes up and out, making new rocks and bringing copper, lead, and silver, however it is deep under ocean.
Vent in Earth's surface. Emits ash, gas, and molten lava. Can be caused by hotspots or convergent plates.
Process of one plate passing under another.
Seafloor Spreading
Oceanic plate meet continental. Oceanic pulled under continental. As other plates move apart, rising magma forms new seafloor crust.
Continental Plates
Lie beneath landmasses. Contains more silicon dioxide. Plates less dense than oceanic.
Tectonic cycle
Sum of the processes that build up and break up lithosphere
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Earth's lithosphere is divided into plates, most of which are in constant motion
Hot Spots
Places where molten material from the mantle reaches lithosphere. Causes volcanoes. Also helps create convection cells
Solid upper mantle and crust. Overlaps with upper mantle. Made of plates with thin layer of soil.
Outer part of mantle. Made of semi-molten, ductile rock.
Molten rock in mantle
1st and innermost layer. Split into inner and outer. Inner is solid, outer liquid. Made of nickel and iron.
Molten rock that slowly circulates in convection cells. 2nd layer from center.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.