AP Comparative Government - Chapter 3
Terms in this set (55)
Opposition to the power of churches or clergy in politics. In some countries, for example, France and Mexico, this opposition has focused on the role of the Catholic Church in politics.
A government in which one or a few rulers has absolute power, thus, a dictatorship.
Balance of Payments
An indicator of international flow of funds that shows the excess of deficit in total payments of all kinds between or among countries. Included in the calculation are exports and imports, grants, and international debt payments.
A hierarchical network through which offices and other benefits are exchanged for Caudillos.
Charismatic populist leaders, usually with a military background, who use patronage and draw upon personal loyalties to dominate a region or a nation in Latin America.
Refers to the 1994 rebellion in response to the implementation of the NAFTA.
A state in which interest groups become an institutionalized part of the state structure.
Land granted by Mexican government to an organized group of peasants.
Federal Character Principle
Enshrined in Nigeria's Constitution since 1979, seeks to ensure that appointments to public service institutions fairly reflect the linguistic, ethnic, religious, and geographic diversity of the country.
Collectively the Hausa and Fulani people of Africa. Fulani war has intertwined them together with Nigeria. Primarily Muslim.
Nigeria's third largest group who are mostly Christian. Located in the Southeast part of Nigeria. Conflicts frequent with the Yoruba. At one point tried to become an independent nation.
Strategy of state led development that Cardenas followed. ISI employs high tariffs to protect locally produced goods from foreign competition, government ownership of key industries, and government subsidies to domestic industries.
A term used to describe the British style of colonialism in Nigeria and India in which local traditional rulers and political structures were used to help support the colonial governing structure.
An interventionist state acts vigorously to shape the performance of major sectors of the economy.
Literally "struggle." Although often used to mean armed struggle against unbelievers, it can also mean to fight against sociopolitical corruption or a spiritual struggle for self-improvement.
Factories that produce goods for export, often located along the U.S.-Mexican border.
A person of mixed white, indigenous (Amerindian), and sometimes African descent.
The region of central Nigeria populated largely by minority ethnic groups, stretching across the country longitudinally. Heterogeneous mix of cultures. Ethno-linguistic barriers, separating the Islamic North and Christian South.
Nigeria's home-grown poverty reduction strategy. Close collaborism with state aid and local governments.
Corporations owned by the state and designated to provide commercial and social welfare services. Provide public utilities.
Patterns of political behavior that rest on the justification that state offices should be utilized for the personal benefit of office holders as well of their support groups or clients.
Funds sent by migrants working abroad to family members in their home countries or by urban migrants to their families in rural areas
A country that contains much of its revenue from the export of oil or other natural resources.
Economic gains that do not compensate those who produced them and do no contribute to productivity. Typically associated with government earnings that do not get channeled back into either investments or policies that benefit the public good. Pursuit of economic rents is profit seeking that takes the form of nonproductive economic activity.
The six-year term in office of Mexican presidents.
Islamic law derived mostly from the Qur'an and the examples set by the Prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah.
An economic system that is primarily capitalistic but in which there is some degree of government ownership of the means of production.
Structural Adjustment Policies
Policies established by the IMF and World Bank intended to alter and reform the economic structures of highly indebted developing countries as a condition for receiving international loans. SAPS often require privatization, trade liberalization, and fiscal restraint, which typically requires the dismantling of social welfare systems.
Career-minded bureaucrats who administer public policy according to a technical rather than political rationale.
A state characterized by instabilities and uncertainties that may render it susceptible to collapse as a coherent entity.
Ethnic group or southwestern and north central Nigeria, speaking the Yoruba language. Conflicts frequently with the Ibo. Largest ethnic group on the west bank of the niger river and delta. Divided among Christian, Muslim, and animist faiths.
Political party in Nigeria formed in 2013. Won 2015 election first time a opposition party unseated a governing party with a peaceful transition of power. Almost won a supermajority in Congress. Center Left.
A continental union consisting of 55 African countries. Has similar goals to the EU.
A jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria. Has a desire to eradicate "man made" laws and implement Sharia in all of Nigeria. Briefly allied with ISIS/ISIL.
The Economic Community of West African States. A regional community/economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa. Created with the Treaty of Lagos with the mission to promote economic integration across the region.
Enrique Pena Nieto
A Mexican politician serving as the 57th president of Mexico. Aligned with the PRI. First time in 12 years dominant PRI hadn't won.
A Mexican politician who was the President of Mexico form 2006-2012. Aligned with PAN.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. A legal agreement between many countries whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas. Replaced by the WTO.
The former president of Nigeria, serving 2010-2015. Took over as VP. First Nigerian president to concede an election. Christian, Southern, IJAW, PDP affiliated.
Retired Army General who was the President of Nigeria 85-93. A key player in military coups in Nigeria.
Ken Saro Wiwa
Nigerian writer, producer, environmental activist. Member of the Ogoni people who were targeted for crude oil extraction, suffering environmental damage. Spokesman for MOSOP leading a campaign against environmental degradation. Also criticized the Nigerian government for failing to be environmentally conservative. Executed.
Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta. One of the largest militant groups in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Claims to expose the exploitation of the people of the Niger Delta and devastation of the environment by the government and corporation partnerships. Utilized guerilla warfare.
Movement for the survival of the Ogoni people. Social movement organization of the Ogoni people. Campaigns for social, economic, and environmental justice in the Niger Delta. Non-violent methods.
The current president of Nigeria. Retired army general. Was previously head of state in the 80's from a coup.
A treaty among the U.S., Mexico, and Canada, implemented on January 1, 1994, that largely eliminates trade barriers among the three nations. NAFTA serves as a model for an eventual free trade area of the Americas zone that could include most nations in the Western hemisphere.
President of Nigeria 1999-2007. Career soldier before being head of state twice. Served as the chairperson of the AU. PDP aligned.
National Action Party. Opposition to the PRI. Center right in politics. Founded by PRI defectors. Conservative and Catholic, based in the North. Supports religion, pro states rights. Divided between Catholic social conservatives and free market focusers. Vicente Fox ended PRI reign. Calderon.
Peoples Democratic Party. Center right policies. Won all elections 199-2011 until 2015. Obasanjo was a candidate and Umaru Yar'adua. Goodluck Jonathan as well.
A Mexican state-owned petroleum company created in 1938 by nationalization of expropriation of all private, foreign and domestic oil companies.
Political party in Mexico created by a large trade union. Centrist and Liberal.
Formed by PRI supporters. Leftist alternative to the PRI. Supported neoliberal reforms, nationalism, and protectionism. Weakened by Obrador. Big in Mexico city, south. Competes for same votes as the PRI.
Essentially a party one in the same with the state. Founded in 1920. Heavily uses clientelism and corporatism for votes. Uses co-optation for dealing with competition. No clear ideology. Founded to eliminate conflict with the government. Declined in the 1980's.
Was a Nigerian general who served as the defacto president on Nigeria 93-98.
13th president of Nigeria. Declared winner of controversial 2007 election. Left for awhile due to disease causing sweeping controversy.
Served as the 55th president of Mexico 2000 - 2006. PAN affiliated, center right politics. First candidate to defeat the PRI in 71 years.
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