84 terms

mc121 midterm

asbury university audio production
STUDY
PLAY
frequency
pitch
hertz
measures frequency, cycles per second
20 hertz - 20,000 hertz
human hearing range
period
the number of cycles per second
wavelength
the physical distance needed to complete 1 cycle
velocity
the speed at which the sound wave travels across space
amplitude
loudness
decibles
measures amplitude, represents the ratio of one signal's amplitude to antoer
dB SPL
used to measure the loudness of sound in a room
threshold of hearing
0 dB SPL
threshold of pain
120 dB SPL
dBu
measurement of voltage, usually representing audio
dbFS
measurement of digital audio
0 dBu
0.775 volts
0 dBfs
full scale (all bits used)
equal loudness contour
our ears are more sensitive to some frequencies than others
compression
the area where dense molecules are pushed together, higher in pressure
rarefaction
the area where fewer molecules are pulled apart
phase
designates a point in a sound wave's cycle
degrees
measures phase, used to measure the time relationship between 2 or more sine waves
in phase
increased amplitude
180 degrees out of phase
no sound
harmonics
richness and character of a musical note, timbre
envelope
helps the listener distinguish one instrument or voice from another
attack
first point of a note
decay
peak to medium level of decline
sustain
constant in the declining stage
release
sound returns to silence
waveform
defines the size and shape of a sound wave
noise
unwanted sound that is non-repeating
distortion
levels are too high
headroom
maximum amount of a signal can be turned up without distortion
pan
adjusts a signal from left to right
send
splits the signal, used for time-based processing
pre-fader
splits signal before channel fader, channel fader does not effect send
post-fader
splits signal after channel fader
insert
passes the signal through then passes it along
inserts
frequency and amplitude based processing are common uses for ...
aux in
passes audio through and does something to it
audio track
can record and playback, unlike aux in
subgroups
route like tracks through an aux in to a subgroup fader
solo
only hear soloed instrument
mute
removes channel from mix
stereophony
a signal that includes left and right, allows us to hear things with localization
intramural time difference
things from the left hit left ear first
intramural amp difference
things from the left hit my left ear louder
phantom center
signal is coming from both sides at the same time and amplitude, gives sense of center
standing waves
wavelengths and dimensions of room correspond
null
frequencies cancel out
reverberation
last component of sound that is processed by the brain, how the size of the space where the sound came from is determined
critical distance
the point at which you reach a point where the reflections are louder than the direct sound
signal processing
altering the audio signal in some non-linear fashion, thereby changing the sound characteristic
summing
combining multiple audio signals into a single signal, done by a bus
routing
sending the audio signal to various destinations in varying degrees
frequency based processing
offers the ability to amplify or attenuate the amplitude of a selected range of frequencies
equalizer
device used in frequency based processing
high pass filter
cuts low frequencies
low pass filter
cuts high frequencies
filter
cuts everything above or below a selected frequency
shelf
boosts or cuts everything above or below a selected frequency by a specified amount
high shelf
cuts everything above a certain frequency by a specified amount
low shelf
cuts everything below a specified frequency by a specified amount
reasons for eq
corrective, fit, reduce noise, sweetening
amplitude based processing
modifies amplitude characteristics of a signal, dynamic processing, compresses or expands
downward compression
reduces dynamic range by making the loudest points quieter
upward compression
making the quietest points louder
threshold
decibel level at which compression begins
ratio
degree to which level is reduced
attack time
speed at which gain reduction occurs
release time
speed at which gain returns to normal
makeup gain
adjusts output level to compensate
limiter
compressor with a ratio of 10:1 or higher
downward expansion
increases dynamic range by making the quietest points quieter
upward expansion
increases dynamic range by making the loudest points louder
gate
most common type of expander
reverb decay time
the time it takes for the reverberation to decrease by 60 dB
pre-delay
the time between the direct sound and the first reflection
early reflection
first few initial echoes that can be perceived separately
delay
single duplication of a signal that is reproduced later in time
reverb
cumulative smear of delays
modulation
pattern of change applied to one or more delay parameters
flange
lfo modulates a very short delay time, delayed signal combined with dry signal
chorus
similar to flange but longer delay time, can be used to sterilize a mono track
time based processing uses
add depth, width, effect
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