Name 3 sources of ethical guidance for physicians and medical students
SGU's Student Manual
clinical ethics committees
Specify 3 duties that doctors have to patients
Specify 3 duties that doctors and medical students have to society
protection of public health
protection of global health
promotion of equitable distribution of scare health resources
List 3 potential conflicts of interest in medicine
pharmaceutical companies paying medical professionals, patient advocacy groups, researchers, continuing medical education providers
advertising medical care
branch of biomedical and health informatics that has to do with understanding and promoting the effective organization, analysis, management, and use of information in health care, and transforming healthcare through information technology
Identify 2 ethical concerns about the use of information communication technology (ICT) in medicine
reduce patients to data sets or objects
some web sites provide unreliable information that could harm patients
some online support groups may be misleading, which could weaken patient trust in physicians and medicine
List the 5 elements of informed consent as these apply to clinical practice and medical research
Name 3 challenges to obtaining informed consent
uncertain mental or legal status
incomplete understanding by patient
Name 3 barriers to effective pain relief
taboos against opioids
doctors that do not know how to respond accordingly or effectively to pain
Describe 3 aspects of virtue and character in medicine and medical education
virtue is developed through habitually leading a moral life
virtue and character is gained through experience
Describe 3 methods used in bioethics
Identify 3 impacts of climate change on health
increased incidence of malaria, dengue fever, other diseases
reduced food yields and water supplies
changing patterns of infectious disease including HIV
Formulate ethical arguments for and against physician assisted suicide
beneficence requires doctors to relieve unbearable suffering
respect for persons requires honoring a patient's informed wishes
sanctity of life
may lead to acceptance of euthanasia
patients change their minds once pain is controlled
Explain the implication of the goals of medicine described in the course companion
prevent disease and injury
promote and maintain health
relieve pain and suffering
care for and about patients
avoid premature death
pursue a peaceful death for patients
Explain the role of culture, and bias, in medicine and patient care
avoid cultural biases
understanding how patient's culture affects their understanding of disease
reduce miscommunication which can lead to poor outcomes
a science of morals in human conduct
application of ethics to medicine and all life sciences
List at least 3 aspects of cognitive competencies
application of information to real-life situations
use of tacit knowledge and personal experience
self-directed acquisition of new knowledge
recognition of gaps in one's own knowledge
ability to generate useful questions
awareness of, and ability to make adjustments for, one's own biases
List at least 3 aspects of integrative competencies
incorporation of scientific, clinical, and ethical judgment
appropriate use of reasoning strategies
linking of interdisciplinary and clinical knowledge
examining and refining one's own reasoning strategies
List at least 3 aspects of relational competencies
List at least 3 aspects of moral competencies
awareness of thought and emotion
recognition of, and response to, cognitive and emotional biases
willingness to acknowledge and correct errors
conforming to accepted rules and standards guiding human behavior
an enacted or customary rule in a community that is recognized as enjoining or prohibiting certain actions
use of reason and argument in seeking truth and knowledge of reality, especially of the causes and nature of things, and of the principles governing existence
the customs and achievements of a particular civilization
the science of processing data for storage and retrieval
What is the harm principle?
violations of respect for persons are justified when these prevent harms to others
Which bioethics principle encompasses confidentiality, harm principle, and paternalism?
respect for persons
List 4 subcomponents of respect for persons
avoidance of killing
What is the 5th vital sign
documented pain level
Which bioethics principle encompasses pain management?
What is utility?
representation of the greatest benefit/harm ratio that can be obtained
What is equipoise?
genuine uncertainty about which arm of a clinial trial will provide the most benefits or harms to patients, research subjects, or future patients
Author of "My Father's Death"
Susan M. Wolf
Author of "Organized Obfuscation: Advocacy for Physician-Assisted Suicide"
Author of "Physician-Assisted death in the United States: Are the Existing "Last Resorts" Enough?"
Timothy E. Quill
If the harms and benefits are proportionate, is nonmaleficence or beneficence more important?
Which is the most important: beneficence, nonmaleficence, respect for patient's autonomy
respect for patient's autonomy
1914 Schloendorff vs. NY Hospital Society
operation without consent is an assault
1957 Salgo vs. Leland Stanford Jr.
patient not informed about procedure risks
1960 Nathanson vs. Kline
negligent radiologist failed to inform patient of procedure risk
1972 Canterbury vs. Spence
informed consent must be clear and understood
administration of large doses of sedatives
belief that a drug is efficacious when it has not been conclusively proven to be so
implying that a drug is efficacious when it has not conclusively been proven to be
beliefs and practices in a given culture are ethical if they represent traditional norms and values in that culture
provision of healthcare informaiton and/or services from a provider in a different location than the patient or person seeking information
provision of healthcare services, clinical information, and/or education over distance and time using information communication technology.
What is the difference between telehealth and distance medicine?
telehealth is centered around the delivery of information that can be done by non-physicians
distance medicine is specific to the provision of medical care by physicians or qualified members of the healthcare team
another word for distance medicine
What is another name for deontological theory?
How does deontological theory view patient confidentiality?
requires physicians to uphold their duty to maintain patient confidentiality under all circumstances
people should adhere to rules and regulations regardless of outcome
What is the difference between consequential theory and utilitarian theory?
consequential theory aims at goodness
utilitarian theory aims at happiness
Name 2 philosophers that promoted the utilitarian theory
John Stuart Mill
going beyond what is required or expected
people should seek to maximize benefits to the maximum number of people
Name a philosopher who is associated with the virtue theory
What professional standards provide guidance on conflicts of interest?
Institute of Medicine (IOM)
What is substituted judgment?
regarding a patient unable to make medical decisions about himself or herself, an attempt to ascertain what the patient would have wanted if he/she understood the present circumstances and prognosis
What is VSED?
voluntarily stopping eating and drinking
"the well-being of the human subject should take precedence over the interests of science and society"
Declaration of Helsinki
"The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential"
What does IRB stand for?
Institutional Review Boards
What report was commissioned in response to the Tuskegee study?
During which phase of the Tuskegee study did the PHS start offering free transportation for "special treatment?
to publicly profess expertise and commitment to a particular area