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List the 5 principles of bioethics

respect for persons





"Real Boys Never Use Jewels"

List the 3 theories of bioethics

deontological (duty-based)

consequential theory (consequence-based)

virtue theory (character-based)

List the 4 professional competencies of bioethics





"Caring Is Really Manly"

Name 3 sources of ethical guidance for physicians and medical students

ethics consultant

SGU's Student Manual

clinical ethics committees

Specify 3 duties that doctors have to patients


Specify 3 duties that doctors and medical students have to society

protection of public health

protection of global health

promotion of equitable distribution of scare health resources

List 3 potential conflicts of interest in medicine

pharmaceutical companies paying medical professionals, patient advocacy groups, researchers, continuing medical education providers

advertising medical care

overtreatment/undertreatment (pre-payment)

Medical informatics

branch of biomedical and health informatics that has to do with understanding and promoting the effective organization, analysis, management, and use of information in health care, and transforming healthcare through information technology

Identify 2 ethical concerns about the use of information communication technology (ICT) in medicine

reduce patients to data sets or objects

some web sites provide unreliable information that could harm patients

some online support groups may be misleading, which could weaken patient trust in physicians and medicine

List the 5 elements of informed consent as these apply to clinical practice and medical research

decision-making capacity





Name 3 challenges to obtaining informed consent

uncertain mental or legal status

coercive influences

incomplete understanding by patient

Name 3 barriers to effective pain relief

taboos against opioids

cultural stereotypes

doctors that do not know how to respond accordingly or effectively to pain

Describe 3 aspects of virtue and character in medicine and medical education

virtue is developed through habitually leading a moral life

virtue and character is gained through experience


Describe 3 methods used in bioethics



fact finding

Identify 3 impacts of climate change on health

increased incidence of malaria, dengue fever, other diseases

reduced food yields and water supplies

changing patterns of infectious disease including HIV

Formulate ethical arguments for and against physician assisted suicide


beneficence requires doctors to relieve unbearable suffering

respect for persons requires honoring a patient's informed wishes


sanctity of life

may lead to acceptance of euthanasia

patients change their minds once pain is controlled



Explain the implication of the goals of medicine described in the course companion

prevent disease and injury

promote and maintain health

relieve pain and suffering

care for and about patients

avoid premature death

pursue a peaceful death for patients

Explain the role of culture, and bias, in medicine and patient care

avoid cultural biases

understanding how patient's culture affects their understanding of disease

reduce miscommunication which can lead to poor outcomes

Define ethics

a science of morals in human conduct

Define bioethics

application of ethics to medicine and all life sciences

List at least 3 aspects of cognitive competencies


information management

application of information to real-life situations

use of tacit knowledge and personal experience

self-directed acquisition of new knowledge

recognition of gaps in one's own knowledge

ability to generate useful questions

awareness of, and ability to make adjustments for, one's own biases

List at least 3 aspects of integrative competencies

incorporation of scientific, clinical, and ethical judgment

appropriate use of reasoning strategies

linking of interdisciplinary and clinical knowledge

managing uncertainty

examining and refining one's own reasoning strategies

List at least 3 aspects of relational competencies

communication skills

handling conflict


teaching others

List at least 3 aspects of moral competencies


critical curiosity

awareness of thought and emotion

recognition of, and response to, cognitive and emotional biases

willingness to acknowledge and correct errors

Define morality

conforming to accepted rules and standards guiding human behavior

Define law

an enacted or customary rule in a community that is recognized as enjoining or prohibiting certain actions

Define philosophy

use of reason and argument in seeking truth and knowledge of reality, especially of the causes and nature of things, and of the principles governing existence

Define culture

the customs and achievements of a particular civilization

Define informatics

the science of processing data for storage and retrieval

What is the harm principle?

violations of respect for persons are justified when these prevent harms to others

Which bioethics principle encompasses confidentiality, harm principle, and paternalism?

respect for persons

List 4 subcomponents of respect for persons




avoidance of killing

What is the 5th vital sign

documented pain level

Which bioethics principle encompasses pain management?


What is utility?

representation of the greatest benefit/harm ratio that can be obtained

What is equipoise?

genuine uncertainty about which arm of a clinial trial will provide the most benefits or harms to patients, research subjects, or future patients

Author of "My Father's Death"

Susan M. Wolf

Author of "Organized Obfuscation: Advocacy for Physician-Assisted Suicide"

Daniel Callahan

Author of "Physician-Assisted death in the United States: Are the Existing "Last Resorts" Enough?"

Timothy E. Quill

If the harms and benefits are proportionate, is nonmaleficence or beneficence more important?


Which is the most important: beneficence, nonmaleficence, respect for patient's autonomy

respect for patient's autonomy

1914 Schloendorff vs. NY Hospital Society

operation without consent is an assault

1957 Salgo vs. Leland Stanford Jr.

patient not informed about procedure risks

1960 Nathanson vs. Kline

negligent radiologist failed to inform patient of procedure risk

1972 Canterbury vs. Spence

informed consent must be clear and understood

Terminal sedation

administration of large doses of sedatives

Phase I


dosage range

side effects

20-80 people

Phase II



side effects

100-300 people

Phase III


side effects

1000-3000 people

Phase IV

post marketing

Therapeutic misconception

belief that a drug is efficacious when it has not been conclusively proven to be so

Therapeutic misrepresentation

implying that a drug is efficacious when it has not conclusively been proven to be

Ethical relativism

beliefs and practices in a given culture are ethical if they represent traditional norms and values in that culture


provision of healthcare informaiton and/or services from a provider in a different location than the patient or person seeking information

Distance medicine

provision of healthcare services, clinical information, and/or education over distance and time using information communication technology.

What is the difference between telehealth and distance medicine?

telehealth is centered around the delivery of information that can be done by non-physicians

distance medicine is specific to the provision of medical care by physicians or qualified members of the healthcare team


another word for distance medicine

What is another name for deontological theory?


How does deontological theory view patient confidentiality?

requires physicians to uphold their duty to maintain patient confidentiality under all circumstances

Deontological theory

people should adhere to rules and regulations regardless of outcome

What is the difference between consequential theory and utilitarian theory?

consequential theory aims at goodness

utilitarian theory aims at happiness

Name 2 philosophers that promoted the utilitarian theory

John Stuart Mill

Jeremy Bentham


going beyond what is required or expected

Consequential theory

people should seek to maximize benefits to the maximum number of people

Name a philosopher who is associated with the virtue theory


What professional standards provide guidance on conflicts of interest?

Institute of Medicine (IOM)

What is substituted judgment?

regarding a patient unable to make medical decisions about himself or herself, an attempt to ascertain what the patient would have wanted if he/she understood the present circumstances and prognosis

What is VSED?

voluntarily stopping eating and drinking

"the well-being of the human subject should take precedence over the interests of science and society"

Declaration of Helsinki

"The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential"

Nuremberg Code

What does IRB stand for?

Institutional Review Boards

What report was commissioned in response to the Tuskegee study?

Belmont Report

During which phase of the Tuskegee study did the PHS start offering free transportation for "special treatment?

Phase II


to publicly profess expertise and commitment to a particular area

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