54 terms

apes chapter 8

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core
innermost zone of planet made of nickel and iron
mantle
82% of earth
magma
hot liquid rock
asthensosphere
part of upper mantle composed of semi-molten rock
lithosphere
crust along with the upper most layer of the mantle
crust
outermost layer of planet
hot spot
localized areas where plugs of molten rock from mantle erupt through crust
plate tectonics
interaction of plates that move slowly over the mantle
tectonic cycle
movement of large portions of crust.
subduction
denser plates dive downward into asthenosphere
volcano
mountain/hill with vent where lava, rock fragments, hot vapor, and gas erupt to crust.
divergent plate boundary
tectonic plates push apart from one another as magma rises up to the surface creating a new lithosphere as it cools
seafloor spreading
forming new areas of oceanic crust that moves through upwelling of magma at midocean ridges.
convergent plate boundary
where two plates are moving toward each other
fault
when tectonic plates slip and glide along one another
seismic activity
types, frequency, and size of earthquakes that happen over time in an area
fault zone
area of crushed rock separating blocks of crust
earthquake
caused by sudden release of energy stored in rocks along a fault
epicenter
location directly above on land or water
richter scale
numeric scale to show magnitude by seismograph oscillations
rock cycle
transforms one rock type into another by erosion, melting, and metamorphism
igneous rock
made from cooling and solidification of magma/lava
intrusive igneous rock
from magma forced into older rocks at depths within crust
extrusive igneous rock
from when hot magma from inside earth flows out onto surface as lava.
fracture
failure under influence of tensile stresses and harmful environments of materials
sedimentary rock
formed through deposition and solidification of sediment
metamorphic rock
rock that changed forms of rock due to heat, pressure, without passing through liquid phase
physical weathering
break down rocks without changing chemical composition
chemical weathering
erode rocks through chemical reactions
acid precipitation
precipitation high in acid polluants
acid rain
rain with acidic atmospheric pollution
erosion
physical removal of rock fragments from landscapes/ecosystems
parent material
rock material that it came from
soil degradation
decline in soil condition due to poor management
horizon
layers
o horizon
loosely and partly decayed organic matter
a horizon
mineral water mixed with some humus
topsoil
top layer of soil
e horizon
zone of eluviation and leaching
b horizon
accumulation of clay, iron, and aluminum from above
c horizon
partially altered parent material
cation exchange capacity
unweathered parent material
base saturation
measure of proportion of soil bases to soil acids
crustal abundance
having much abundance of elements
ore
naturally occurring solid material which metal/valuable mineral can be extracted
metal
mineral resources that conduct heat energy and electricity
reserve
estimated supply of a mineral resource left to be economically recovered
strip mining
layers of surface soil and rock removed from large areas to expose resource. when done, refilled with the overburden
mining spoils
lies above area that lends itself to economical exploitation
tailings
residue of something
open-pit mining
used when mineral spread widely and evening throughout a rock formation
mountaintop removal
forests clear-cut, topsoil removed, rock blasted away to expose coal
placer mining
sift through debris in rivers and streams to serach for metals and gems
subsurface mining
horizontal tunnel dug, vertical shafts drilled to extract ore using elevators.
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