Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
One of sociology's first pioneers, showed that social forces are at work even in such an intensely personal action as suicide
Seeing Sociologically Marginality and Crisis
A person that doesn't belong to a dominant group--everyday experience
Science and Sociology
b. Theological stage: when people took the religious view that society expressed God's will
c. Metaphysical stage: which people saw society as a natural rather than supernatural phenomenon
d. Positivism: a scientific approach to knowledge based on "positive" facts as opposed to mere speculation
Is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
a) Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
2) Is dysfunctional, but it is a result of a structure that is also functional
3) Laws are formal structures
4) Structure + Function, ultimately the thing to look for
The Social Conflict Approach
a. Is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
b. Benefits people in position of power
c. Pattern exists as a tool in competition or as the result of an effort to achieve self-interest or establish power
d. Self-interest + Power, ultimately the thing to look for
Symbolic -interaction approach
1) A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
2) People share some common perception of reality and shared value system that they obtain either through agreement, learning or common experience
The study of society that focuses on discovering the meanings people attach to their social world
The importance of Meaning
1 Positivist sociology focuses on action, what we can observe directly
2 Positivist sociology claims that objective reality exists "out there"
3 Positivists sociology tends to favor quantitative data-numerical measurements of outward behavior
1 The study of society that focuses on the need for social change
2 Is an activist approach that ties knowledge to action and seeks not just to understand the world as it exists by also to improve it
Research Orientations and Theory
1)The positivists orientation is linked to the structural-functional approach
2)The interpretive orientation to the symbolic-interaction approach
Is a problem when sociologist gather data only from men but use that information to draw a conclusion about all people
Ten Steps in Sociological Research
What is your topic?
What have others already learned?
What, exactly, are your questions?
What will you need to carry out research?
v. Are there ethical concerns?
vi. What method will you use?
vii. How will you record the data?
viii. What do the data tell you?
ix. What are you conclusions?
x. How can you share what you have learned?
the study of society that focuses on discovering the meanings people attach to their social world