ch 4 ecology
Terms in this set (34)
Foraging decisions depend on the time needed to travel round-trip to site with resources_________ and the time spent obtaining food at a site________________
(i.e., traveling time)
(i.e., searching time).
These alterations improve______________ by making it difficult for the predator to find or consume the prey.
Euplotes ciliates sense cues from Lembadion predators. Euplotes respond by growing larger. This is energetically costly.
Lembadion can also respond by growing larger, but they are poorly suited to eat small prey.
Changes in morphology__________ and life history________ are often relatively slow responses.
(e.g., body shape)
(e.g., time to sexual maturity)
The most rapid phenotypic responses are typically
If spatial variation is not common,
a single phenotype will be favored.
Many times plasticity increases
that is well-suited to one environment may be poorly suited to other environments.
can turn certain genes on or off, which causes different phenotypes to develop.
The extent of the space affected by an event is usually related to an event's
duration in time.
The spatial dimensions of atmospheric and marine phenomena are related to their duration.
Variations in topography and geology are generated at a slower pace than aquatic and atmospheric variations.
Events can be rare, but have large effects
Some variation occurs in regular intervals
(e.g., forest fires).
In general, the more extreme events occur less frequently.
the variation in temperature and precipitation over periods of hours or days.
Some temporal variation in the environment is _________some is_________
predictable (e.g., alternation of day and night);
unpredictable (e.g., weather).
the typical atmospheric conditions that occur through the year, measured over many years.
Large-scale spatial variation VS.
small spatial scale
Large - climate, land topography, and soil type
Small - plant structure and animal behavior
All phenotypes result from
genes interacting with environments.
the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes.
allows organisms to achieve homeostasis if environmental conditions vary
Many types of traits are plastic, such as
behavior, growth, development, and reproduction.
When environmental variation results in phenotypic trade-offs, natural selection will favor the evolution of
Gray tree frog tadpoles produce a phenotype that allows fast escape when predators are present and fast growth when predators are absent.
For an organism to alter its phenotype in an adaptive way, it must first be able to sense its
The best cues are those that offer the most reliable information about the environment.
How does an organism sense the level of food in its habitat?
Detecting the presence of competitors may offer a poor cue because number of competitors may not matter if resources are abundant.
A better cue may be the amount of food an individual can acquire each day.
Resource availability may determine
Many species alter their ________________ ______________ ______________in response to the presence of predators.
growth, body shape, and behavior
Plants have the ability to respond to the presence of
When Virginia pepperweed is eaten by herbivores, the plant develops leaf hairs (i.e., trichomes) and gluocosinolate compounds that make the leaves difficult to consume. Induced leaves attract fewer herbivores.
The hermaphroditic common pond snail delays egg-laying if mates are unavailable. Self-fertilizing snails lay fewer eggs.
individuals that produce both male and female gametes; individuals are able to fertilize their eggs with their own sperm (i.e., they are self-compatible).
Many organisms can adjust their_____________ to maintain activity across different environmental temperatures.
Isozymes in goldfish allow cold-acclimated fish to swim fast at low temperatures and warm-acclimated fish to swim fast at high temperatures. Fish swim poorly at temperatures to which they are not acclimated.
Many animals respond to temperature by moving to________________
The desert iguana regulates its body temperature by basking on rocks, seeking shade, or burrowing in the ground.
Microhabitats: locations within a habitat that differ in environmental conditions from the rest of the habitats.
a condition in which organisms dramatically reduce their metabolic processes
Four types of dormancy are:
Insects facing drought conditions enter diapause by dehydrating themselves. Some form an impermeable outer layer to prevent further dessication.
During winter, chipmunks slow breathing and heart rates and reduce body temperature to close to 0°C.
The West Indian hummingbird loses much of the heat it generates to cold temperatures. To save energy, the bird enters torpor when it is resting at night.
Aestivation: the shutting down of metabolic processes during the summer in response to hot or dry conditions. Well-known examples include snails, desert tortoises, and crocodiles.
Some terrestrial animals survive cold weather on land by producing______________ that control the formation of ice crystals.
Many______________ species can freeze solid underground in a state that requires little metabolic activity.
is a plastic behavior because different feeding strategies represent different behavioral phenotypes.
Central place foraging:
foraging behavior in which acquired food is brought to a central place (e.g., a nest with young birds).
Creek chub feed on tubifex worms, but locations with worms also contain more predators.
Research has found that past a certain threshold of resource abundance, creek chub will risk feeding in an area with predators.
Below that threshold, creek chub avoid areas with predators.
foraging behavior that is influence by the presence of predators.
a statistical description of how one variable changes in relation to another variable.
the amount of time that a predator takes to consume a captured prey.
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