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64 terms

WESTERN CIV - SEMESTER 1 EXAM

STUDY
PLAY
to which historical periods did Renaissance artists and thinkers look for inspiration? Why?
greek and roman because they emphasized people and heroes
describe middle ages art
not a lot, mostly religious, royalty, no backgrounds or depth
describe renaissance art
detailed, shadows, backgrounds, depth, perspective, showed humanism, columns
who first used perspective
brunellescheci
baby means
rebirth
water means
new life
importance of individuals
art focused on regular human beings, not royalty, portraits, showed everyday life
italian renaissance
began in 1300s in italy, florence and venice, portrayed images in soft and graceful manner, religious influence, emphasized humans and environment
northern renaissance
began in 1400s in england france germany flanders as a reaction of what was happening in italy, hard and angular, attention to detail
two different kinds of renaissance art
italian and northern
statue of david
michelangelo, 1501, before the battle
mona lisa
leonardo da vinci, 1504, smile and brush strokes
sistine chapel
michaelangelo, bernini, boticelli, raphael, 1508 - 1512, book of genesis
cowper virgin
raphael, 1505
david
donatello, 1508, feminine, after battle
maddalena
donatello, 1450, begging for forgiveness
la pieta
michaelangelo
the sistine madonna
raphael, 1508-1512
holy roman empire
a land area controlled by a king that was appointed by the pope
hundred year war
between the french and the english, french won
richard the lionhearted
king of england, killed people, leader of 3rd crusade
magna carta
document written by english noblemen that was forced upon king john the first
what were the three objectives of cosimo de medici
power, influence, control of papacy
what did giovanni and cosimo become known as
god's bankers
who sparked an architectural revolution across europe
brunelleschi
what was the inspiration for the architectural revolution across europe
the pantheon in rome and the unfinished dome in florence
what was the impact of the dome brunelleschi finished in rome?
man can do the impossible
what was the trojan war? why did it occur?
.
what city state was the first the use democracy
athens
what is a polis
consists of a local community and the surrounding countryside
persian wars
fought for dominance in the meditterean
differences between athens and sparta
sparta was mainly interested in a military life and was an oligarchy, athens was a democracy in which the people learned about art, culture, and language
why was the pelponnesian war fought
to be the most dominate city state
hellenistic? had to do with?
a type of culture that blends greek culture with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences, alexander the great
compare and contrast the ideas of the major philosophers of greece
socrates died for own beliefs, used the socratic method, taught plato who started the academy and thought up a utopia and taught aristotle, who went to the academy and pioneered biology and physics and taught alexander the great
describe the key political positions of the roman republic
two consuls governed the city elected for one year and not again for ten years, dictators ruled everything for 6 months, senate was the government body and the assembly consisted of 300 nobles and tribunes that created the laws
name and describe the good and bad emperors of rome
bad- nero, caligula, good- octavian, augustus casear, trajan, marcus cirilious
who was augustus caesar
a good emperor of rome who was in the second triumvirate, built musoluem, unified the roman empire, son of julius caesar
what was the period of peace within the roman empire called
pax romana
how did christianity began and how was it able to spread throughout rome
christianity started with Jesus Christ and Judaism, and spread during the pax romana because the roads allowed for trade and therefore the spread of new ideas, cultures, and religions
how did the city of constantinople become the new capital of the roman empire
after diocletian ruined the roman empire, constantine took control and moved the capital to the east because there was more wealth there
describe the downfall of the roman empire
attila the hun, economic hardships, barbarian invasions, civil strife, military problems
charlemagne
king of the franks, holy roman emperor
who was the head of the catholic church
the pope
name and describe the effects of the crusades of europe
they reconnected europe with greek and roman knowledge, they advanced trade and advanced technology
chivalry
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages requiring them to be brave, loyal, and true to their word
describe the crusades
holy wars used to regain the holy land of jerusalem, fought by the muslims and the christians from 1096 to 1109, 8 crusades
what is feudalism
a system of governing and landowning based on mutual obligations, kings barons bishops dukes serfs
what is manoralism
set of rights between the lords and the serfs
who was william the conqueror
he invaded england after his cousin king edward died, he fought in the battle of hastings against george goodwinson,he set the foundation for modern day government
describe the great schism
a division in the medieval roman catholic church where rival popes were established in rome that started in 1507
what is the canon law
provided sets of laws for the church
what was the bubonic plague
a deadly disease in the fourteenth century, transmitted by fleas and rats that spread across asia and europe, killing millions of people, causing symptoms of fever and chills, became known as the black death
who was joan of arc
1412 to 1431, a french girl who heard voices and saw visions of God that lead her to rescue france from its english conquerors, she led the french army to several victories, she was then captured, sold, and burned at the stake
what does the word renaissance mean
rebirth
what is the renaissance the rebirth of
art and learning
humanism
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
who were the medicis
a wealthy family who ruled the city of florence and owned a bank
what are some the great artistic works by michelangelo
the statue of david, the sistine chapel, la pieta
what created the mona lisa and the last supper
leanardo da vinci
what is a renaissance man? example? why?
a person who can do may things very well, in the renaissance the ideal man was a philosopher, a poet, a scholar, a scientist, an artist, and a soldier, leonardo da vinci
who was niccolo machiavelli and what did he write?
a renaissance write and scholar, The Prince, which was a guide for any person of royalty
how did niccolo machiavelli view human nature? how would you describe his attitude toward politics and governing?
humans are selfish in nature, survival of the fittest for royalty, all people of nobility needed to be ruthless and cruel to keep their positions and keep their country safe
what is fresco? example?
a painting on wet plaster, sistine chapel