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to which historical periods did Renaissance artists and thinkers look for inspiration? Why?

greek and roman because they emphasized people and heroes

describe middle ages art

not a lot, mostly religious, royalty, no backgrounds or depth

describe renaissance art

detailed, shadows, backgrounds, depth, perspective, showed humanism, columns

who first used perspective


baby means


water means

new life

importance of individuals

art focused on regular human beings, not royalty, portraits, showed everyday life

italian renaissance

began in 1300s in italy, florence and venice, portrayed images in soft and graceful manner, religious influence, emphasized humans and environment

northern renaissance

began in 1400s in england france germany flanders as a reaction of what was happening in italy, hard and angular, attention to detail

two different kinds of renaissance art

italian and northern

statue of david

michelangelo, 1501, before the battle

mona lisa

leonardo da vinci, 1504, smile and brush strokes

sistine chapel

michaelangelo, bernini, boticelli, raphael, 1508 - 1512, book of genesis

cowper virgin

raphael, 1505


donatello, 1508, feminine, after battle


donatello, 1450, begging for forgiveness

la pieta


the sistine madonna

raphael, 1508-1512

holy roman empire

a land area controlled by a king that was appointed by the pope

hundred year war

between the french and the english, french won

richard the lionhearted

king of england, killed people, leader of 3rd crusade

magna carta

document written by english noblemen that was forced upon king john the first

what were the three objectives of cosimo de medici

power, influence, control of papacy

what did giovanni and cosimo become known as

god's bankers

who sparked an architectural revolution across europe


what was the inspiration for the architectural revolution across europe

the pantheon in rome and the unfinished dome in florence

what was the impact of the dome brunelleschi finished in rome?

man can do the impossible

what was the trojan war? why did it occur?


what city state was the first the use democracy


what is a polis

consists of a local community and the surrounding countryside

persian wars

fought for dominance in the meditterean

differences between athens and sparta

sparta was mainly interested in a military life and was an oligarchy, athens was a democracy in which the people learned about art, culture, and language

why was the pelponnesian war fought

to be the most dominate city state

hellenistic? had to do with?

a type of culture that blends greek culture with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences, alexander the great

compare and contrast the ideas of the major philosophers of greece

socrates died for own beliefs, used the socratic method, taught plato who started the academy and thought up a utopia and taught aristotle, who went to the academy and pioneered biology and physics and taught alexander the great

describe the key political positions of the roman republic

two consuls governed the city elected for one year and not again for ten years, dictators ruled everything for 6 months, senate was the government body and the assembly consisted of 300 nobles and tribunes that created the laws

name and describe the good and bad emperors of rome

bad- nero, caligula, good- octavian, augustus casear, trajan, marcus cirilious

who was augustus caesar

a good emperor of rome who was in the second triumvirate, built musoluem, unified the roman empire, son of julius caesar

what was the period of peace within the roman empire called

pax romana

how did christianity began and how was it able to spread throughout rome

christianity started with Jesus Christ and Judaism, and spread during the pax romana because the roads allowed for trade and therefore the spread of new ideas, cultures, and religions

how did the city of constantinople become the new capital of the roman empire

after diocletian ruined the roman empire, constantine took control and moved the capital to the east because there was more wealth there

describe the downfall of the roman empire

attila the hun, economic hardships, barbarian invasions, civil strife, military problems


king of the franks, holy roman emperor

who was the head of the catholic church

the pope

name and describe the effects of the crusades of europe

they reconnected europe with greek and roman knowledge, they advanced trade and advanced technology


a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages requiring them to be brave, loyal, and true to their word

describe the crusades

holy wars used to regain the holy land of jerusalem, fought by the muslims and the christians from 1096 to 1109, 8 crusades

what is feudalism

a system of governing and landowning based on mutual obligations, kings barons bishops dukes serfs

what is manoralism

set of rights between the lords and the serfs

who was william the conqueror

he invaded england after his cousin king edward died, he fought in the battle of hastings against george goodwinson,he set the foundation for modern day government

describe the great schism

a division in the medieval roman catholic church where rival popes were established in rome that started in 1507

what is the canon law

provided sets of laws for the church

what was the bubonic plague

a deadly disease in the fourteenth century, transmitted by fleas and rats that spread across asia and europe, killing millions of people, causing symptoms of fever and chills, became known as the black death

who was joan of arc

1412 to 1431, a french girl who heard voices and saw visions of God that lead her to rescue france from its english conquerors, she led the french army to several victories, she was then captured, sold, and burned at the stake

what does the word renaissance mean


what is the renaissance the rebirth of

art and learning


an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics

who were the medicis

a wealthy family who ruled the city of florence and owned a bank

what are some the great artistic works by michelangelo

the statue of david, the sistine chapel, la pieta

what created the mona lisa and the last supper

leanardo da vinci

what is a renaissance man? example? why?

a person who can do may things very well, in the renaissance the ideal man was a philosopher, a poet, a scholar, a scientist, an artist, and a soldier, leonardo da vinci

who was niccolo machiavelli and what did he write?

a renaissance write and scholar, The Prince, which was a guide for any person of royalty

how did niccolo machiavelli view human nature? how would you describe his attitude toward politics and governing?

humans are selfish in nature, survival of the fittest for royalty, all people of nobility needed to be ruthless and cruel to keep their positions and keep their country safe

what is fresco? example?

a painting on wet plaster, sistine chapel

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