Psychology 16 SLEEP AND DREAMS
Las Positas College Department of Psychology with Ernie Jones Psychology 16- Sleep & Dreams Fall 2013
Terms in this set (133)
Hans Berger (p. 30 Dr. Dement)
a German psychiatrist (in the late 20's and early 30's): Showed how spontaneous electrical activity could be recorded from the human scalp. He identified the waking alpha rhythm, and said that if a subject fell asleep the rhythm disappeared.
Nathaniel Kleitman (p. 31 Dement)
Russian physiologist in the 1920's: The first to set up a laboratory devoted to the study of Sleep.
Studied under Dr. Kleitman; came up with the theory that REM was related to dreaming.
Founded the sleep disorders center at Stanford.
Identify the Basic Characteristics of Sleep (Dement p. 17-18)
1st is that sleep puts a wall between the conscious mind and the outside world.
2nd is that it is immediately reversible
It occurs naturally, and periodically-daily.
It is also characterized by electrical changes in the brain.
Why do we sleep?
It is an unknown question: many believe it is to rest the muscles, metabolize or simply to rest. There is no evidence and researchers are still driven to find the answer to this question.
Greek: polus="many'; Latin ("somnus"=sleep; graphein=to write") is the comprehensive recording of brain waves, eye movements, muscle activity, heart rhythm, and breathing during sleep. Referred to as "Sleep study", PSG is a standard method to study/record in detail all the biophysiological changes that occur in the human body when the person is asleep. (METHOD OF STUDYING SLEEP AND DREAMS)
Measures Brain waves
Measures eye movement
Measures Skeletal Activation
Awake, alert, focused (12-30 per second)
Relaxed, daydreaming, "open-focus" (8-12 per second)
Deep relaxation, sleep (4-8 per second)
Deep sleep (up to 4 per second)
refers to the structure of sleep cycles through the night. Represented by a graph called a hypnogram
NON REM sleep
consists of 4 stages: ranging from very light sleep to the deep. N1 and N2-light sleep
slow wave sleep N3 and N4. REM Sleep is a separate stage that is generally associated with REM.
Rapid Eye Movement occurs during very deep sleep associated with Dreaming.
a state of psychological equilibrium obtained when tension or a drive has been reduced or eliminated.
sleep is generally characterized by
1. a brain process
2. homeostatically regulated process
3. active process
4. consists of complex bio-psychological processes
5. episodic process
6. promptly reversible
7. perceptual disengagement from external world
8. motor inhibition
Why do we sleep?
restores brain and body to optimal operating condition. it is necessary for maintaining optimal mental and physical health. It is necessary for body repair, restoration and growth. Is necessary for the conservation and replenishing energy. It is necessary for proper immune function. It promotes brain development. It promotes learning and memory consolidation.
skeletal muscle activation
EKG or ECG
Heart Rhythm, Leg movements
blood oxygen levels
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
? is conducted at a sleep center or hospital with an overnight sleep study
Two types of sleep
Discovered by Kleitman & Dement
Sleep stages are repeated
4-6 times in a series of 90 minute cycles recorded by a hypnogram that shows the sleep architecture.
Complex brain processes are:
Sleeping and dreaming
Brain Stem location
as the spinal cord enters the skull it widens to form the "Brain Stem"
important roles the brain stem plays
in wakefulness, sleep, and REM.
The brain stem is composed of how many parts?
4- The Medulla Oblongata=Basic life functions, such as heart rate and respiration.
Pons-Important role in Sleep, REM, and wakefulness.
Midbrain-Pleasure, motivation, and alertness (dopamine)
Reticular Activating System (RAS)-Important brainstem network of neurons responsible for determining arousal areas of upper brain areas.
important role in basic life support functions, such as heart rate and respiration
important role in sleep, REM, and wakefulness. Manufacturing center for key neurotransmitters involved in sleep (serotonin), REM (Acetylcholine (ACh)), and wakefulness (norepinephrine and acetylcholine, (ACh)).
neurotransmitters involved in sleep
serotonin, acetylcholine (ACh), norepinephrine. Manufactured in the PONS
important manufacturing center for key neurotransmitter involved in pleasure, motivation, and alertness. (Dopamine)
Neurotransmitter involved in pleasure, motivation and alertness (Midbrain)
RAS Reticular Activating System
important brainstem network of neurons responsible for determining arousal areas of upper brain areas.
What area determines arousal in the upper brain areas?
Cerebellum "Little Brain"
is located in the back of the brain, is intricately connected to the brainstem.
What area isn't considered to play a role in sleep, however, its functioning is impaired by sleep deprivation?
The Cerebellum "Little Brain"
Cerebellums key functions
coordination of movement, balance and posture.
Integration of sensory, and motor functions.
Involved in certain types of memory and cognitive functions.
other areas include: Nucleus accumbens, cingulate gyrus also play key roles in REM
Contains alerting (wakefulness) and sleep promoting centers, and regulates biological rhythms.
Major role in consciousness, alertness, and sleep
Key area involved in generating emotional responses- especially fear, anxiety, and anger. Highly activated during REM
key area involved in memory. Highly active during REM. Visual memory replay.
reward (other area of limbic system) important role in REM
attention, emotions, (other area of limbic system) important role in REM
consists of group structures intricately connected to both the limbic system and the cerebral cortex. Important in the initiation and control of movements, emotions and cognition.
The Neo Cortex aka cerebrum
thinking cap of the brain. Region consisting of 2 large hemispheres (left and right). Responsible for all higher mental functions,including perception, cognition, organizing and directing behavior. The highly wrinkled outer 1/4" covering of the neo-cortex is called cerebral cortex.
the highly wrinkled outer 1/4" covering of the neo-cortex. (outer covering of the brain)
2 hemispheres of the brain (left and right)
2 areas of the Basal Ganglia
Limbic System & the Cerebral Cortex
Lobes of the brain
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal
Executive of the brain.
Left Brain Hemisphere
speech, language, rational thought, Analytical, Literal and conscious awareness.
Right Brain Hemisphere
Non verbal, Visual-Spatial, Emotional, Intuitive, Non conscious
Neurons aka Nerve cells
are the basic functional units of the brain and nervous system. 100 billion +/- in the brain and at least as many in the nervous system. Variety of shapes, sizes, and classes, however, all neurons are engaged in transmitting and processing information.
Cell body "Command Center of the Neuron"
chemical factory: manufactures enzymes, proteins, and neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters: are chemical messengers that pass signals from one neuron to another.
are chemical messengers that pass signals from one neuron to another.
Dendrites "Information Receivers"
short, branch like extensions from the cell body.
receive signals from other neurons.
receptors for signals from other neurons are located on the dendrites.
Lined with thousands of additional receiving stations called dendritic spines.
Axon: The Action Potential
Each neuron sends messages to other neurons through a long, wire-like fiber called "The Axon"
Unlike dendrites, a neuron has only one Axon.
The Axon fiber carries messages in the form of electrical signals (called Nerve impulse or an action potential) away from the cell body.
at the end of each axon collateral, the axon bulges to form the axon terminal.
Found within the axon terminal are numerous tiny sacs, called synaptic vesicles, where specialized messenger chemicals called neurotransmitters are stored.
Forms one part of a junction, called the synapse, between the neuron and the dendrite to another neuron.
junction between the neuron and the dendrite to another neuron (axon terminal)
tiny fluid gap that separates the axon terminal of one neuron from the dendrite of another.
When the electrical signal carried down the axon reaches the axon terminal, the synaptic vesicles rupture and spill chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters, into the synapse.
The Neurotransmitters then cross the synaptic gap and bind with receptors on the dendrites of the receiving neuron (LOCK AND KEY)
Numerous of tiny sacs within the axon terminal specialized messenger chemicals called Neurotransmitters are stored.
Neurotransmitters of wakefullness
Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Serotonin, Histamine, Hypocretin-Orexin (HO), Glutamate.
Neurotransmitters of NREM SLEEP
Adenosine, Serotonin, GABA, Galanin, Melatonin.
Neurotransmitters of REM SLEEP
Once a day: sleep/wake cycles, levels of alertness, body temperature, hormone secretion, blood pressure, pain sensitivity, digestive secretions, reaction time.
Sleeps in the day
Sleeps at night and awake in the day
Latin for twilight- active during dusk and dawn
More than once a day: brain waves, sleep and REM cycles, Energy and alertness, breathing, restroom, conception during day (aroused), heart rate, appetite, hormonal release.
Circadian, Ultradian, Infradian
Latin for Below. Occurs over periods longer than a day. some occur weekly, and others monthly: monthly cycles (PMS), energy, sex drive, mood, Seasonal rhythms:
SCN "Master Biological Clock
is a tiny part of the hypothalamus. Pinhead sized brain structures that together contain only about 20,000 neurons, found just above the point in the brain where the optic nerves cross called the optic chiasm. Responsible for regulating the timing of transitions between sleep and wakefulness and promotes sleep by turning off the clock-dependent alerting signals. Signals other parts of the brain that control hormones, body temperature, hunger, and other functions that play a role in making us feel sleepy or awake.
at sunset the SCN signals this gland located deep in the interior of the brain, just above and behind the brainstem to secrete melatonin.
Melatonin "Darkness Hormone"
When released into the bloodstream it interacts with receptors throughout the brain and body, shifting from daytime to nighttime mode, and drowsiness ensues. Increases alpha/theta EEG activity and slows cognitive and psychomotor performance.
German for "Time Givers"- External time cues:
synchronizes biological rhythms and the rhythms of the external world: Cues for the external world are called Entrainment (Internal meets external)
Examples of Zeitgebers
Light is the most important. ambient temperatures, food intake, noise levels, physical activity, social contact.
Free running rhythms
SCN can function without external cues produced in circadian rhythms (without entrainment and environmental cues) moves to a 25 hour clock vs a 24 hour clock schedule.
Kleitman and Richardson
mammoth cave study: 1st of the time isolation study. 32 days lived in a cave.
lark or an owl, hummingbird
disruptions of circadian rhythms
SAD seasonal affective disorder
clinical form of depression
sleep and alerting; but doesn't generate wakefulness or the sleep drive
hypothalamus, thalamus, & certain areas of the brainstem. When this area is active, its neurons secrete the chemicals histamine & HO, essential to maintaining wakefulness.
Histamine and HO
chemicals essential to maintaining wakefulness
(Alerting Areas) of the posterior hypothalamus.
neurons secrete chemicals histamine and HO.
determines brains arousal level.
2 Sleep promoting areas
Hypothalamus contains 2 key sleep areas: SCN (master clock) VLPO (sleep switch).
VLPO "Sleep Switch"
neurons release GABA & Galanin; which are necessary for sleep.
Alerting Brain Areas:
RAS, PONS, Thalamus, Hypothalamus,
SLEEP and REM promoting brain areas:
RAS, PONS, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Cingulate Gyrus.
2 Processes that regulate Sleep and Wakefulness
Homeostatic Sleep Drive and Clock Dependent Alerting (CDA)
Clock Dependent Alerting-1 of the processes that regulate sleep and wakefulness. (Internal Wakeup signal)
Opponent Process Model
The Homeostatic and CDA interact to produce daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness.
sleep onset period
during this phase the person is still awake but drowsy and resting quietly as they drift to sleep. Brain wave patterns shift from beta to alpha. On set sleep approaches slower theta waves begin to appear. Dream-like thoughts called hypnagogic reverie, and visual imagery called hypnagogic hallucinations commonly occur during the Sleep Onset period
Dreamlike thoughts that occur as the beta shifts to alpha and then to theta during the sleep onset period. Associated with falling asleep
Visual Imagery that occurs during the sleep onset period (Shift between beta/alpha to theta) associated with waking up.
Alpha to Theta Drowsy-Light sleep
NREM- a decrease in overall brain activity, appearance of slow, rolling eye movement, increasing muscle relaxation, decreasing heart rate and respiration.
The length of time it takes a sleeper to go from sleep onset stage to falling asleep.
Normal is about 10-20 min
light sleep: conscious awareness of environment disappears, muscle activity decreases, eyes stop moving, brain wave activity takes on a distinct pattern that characterizes stage 2: theta waves continue but are interspersed with sudden sporadic bursts of faster brain waves called "Sleep Spindles" and wave patterns called K-complexes. Moderately light sleep not associated with vivid dreaming. Adults spend 50% approx. of a typical nights sleep in stage 2.
Slow-Wave Sleep (SWS)- transition from light sleep to deep sleep. Brain wave activity begins to shift from theta to slower delta waves. Muscles become more relaxed, body temperature drops, and heart rate, breathing, and brain activity slow. EEG 20-50% Delta Waves
SWS- deepest level of sleep. Sleeper is unresponsive to most external stimulation and very difficult to arouse. The immune system becomes more active during this stage. Growth hormone levels in the blood stream increase, as the body does maintenance and repair work.
Sleep walking, sleep talking, bed wetting & night terrors occur during this stage. Stress hormone "Cortisol" is shut off.
Stress hormone. Shut off during Delta waves in stage 4 sleep. Too much cortisol in the immune system will produce organ problems.
Rapid Eye Movement, REM
about 20-40 minutes into stage 4 delta sleep, the sleeper ascends back up to stage 3 for a moment and then back up to stage 2 for a few minutes and then shuts off to stage 5 sleep called REM. The sleepers eyes dart rapidly back and forth, his voluntary muscles become paralyzed, nocturnal erections and vivid dreaming begins. REM is a biological & mental necessity
Brain activity and REM
other areas of the brain are "off-duty" during this stage, including logical, rational, reality oriented prefrontal cortex.
REM & Dreaming
If awakened during REM the sleeper will report having a dream. (80-90%) Dreams are more emotional, vivid with vivid story lines and visual imagery.
Adults require 2 hours of REM a night or suffer a deficiency. REM is a biological and mental necessity. Physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning in animals and humans may suffer when deprived of REM.
REM Rebound Effect
Occurs when the REM deprived (or awakened by external force interrupts REM sleep) is allowed to go back to sleep and regains the REM. People report they can pick up where they left off in the dream they were having.
Functions of REM
Stimulates development of brain circuits.
Stimulates and helps maintain brain circuits.
The Brains REM Switch
Neurons in part of the brainstem called the Pons contain neurons that serves as the brain's REM switch.
- neuron cells become active & send excitatory signals to the cerebral cortex and the limbic system (Basal Ganglia)
ACh significantly increases:
-ACh excites visual, motor, and emotional regions of the brain.
-triggers REM and visual imagery of dreams
Serotonin and Norepinephrine levels in the brain decline.
Serotonin and Norepinephrine decline when?
The Brains REM switch is active from the neurons sending signals to the cerebral cortex
What is the "Dream director"?
The limbic system: the LS consists of a number of sub-cortical (below cortex) structures, including the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. The most active during REM.
Brain activity during NREM Physiological Process
Decreases from wakefulness
Heart rate during NREM Physiological Process
Slows from Wakefulness
Blood Pressure during NREM Physiological process
Decreases from wakefulness
Blood flow to brain during NREM Physiological Process
Does not change from wakefulness in most regions.
Respiration during NREM Physiological Process
Decreases from wakefulness
Body Temperature during NREM Physiological Process
Regulated at lower set point than wakefulness; shivering initiated at lower temperature than during wakefulness.
Sexual Arousal during NREM Physiological Process
Brain activity during REM Physiological Process
Increases in motor and sensory areas, while other areas are similar to NREM.
Heart Rate during REM Physiological Process
Increases and varies compared with NREM
Blood Pressure during REM Physiological Process
Increases (up to 30%) and varies from NREM
Blood Flow during REM Physiological Process
Increases by 50-200% from NREM, depending on brain region.
Respiration during REM Physiological Process
Increases and varies from NREM, but may show brief stoppages (Apnea); coughing suppressed.
Body Temperature during REM Physiological Process
Is not regulated; no shivering or sweating; temperature drifts toward that of the local environment.
Sexual arousal during REM Physiological Process
Increases from NREM (in both Male and Females)
Dements Strobe Light Experiment. It is the Perceptual Disengagement from the environment at the moment of sleep onset. No external stimuli present.
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