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Intro to Psychology Chapter 4 - Developing Through The Lifespan
Terms in this set (24)
branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Developmental Psychology Focuses on....
1. Nature and Nurture
2. Continuity and Stages
3.Stability and Change
-unique genetic combination
-shared humanity and individual differences
-influence of family, friends, environment
Development is seen as proceeding in two ways
Agents, such as a chemical or virus, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
-Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior
-Relatively uninfluenced by experience
-Severe deprivation or abuse can slow development, yet genetic growth patterns are inborn
-An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development
-Lacking exposure/experience results in abnormal development
-The brain's amazing plasticity reorganizes brain tissues in response to new experiences
concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing understandings
adapting current understandings to incorporate new information
-Minds develops through series of universal, irreversible stages from simple reflexes to adult abstract reasoning
-sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
-From birth to nearly 2 years
-Infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
-Infants lack object permanence
-Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
-Mastered around 8 months, when infants begin exhibiting memory for things no longer seen
-From about 2 to 6 or 7 years
-Child learns to use language but cannot yet perform the mental operations of concrete logic
-Conservation: Principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
-Children engage in pretend play
-Egocentrism: Children have difficulty perceiving things from another's point of view.
Theory of Mind
-Involves ability to read mental state of others
-Between ages 3 and 4½, children worldwide use theory of mind to realize others may hold false beliefs
-By age 4 to 5, children anticipate false beliefs of friends
-Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty understanding that another's state of mind differs from their own.
Concrete Operational Stage
-From about 7 to 11 years
-Children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
-They begin to understanding that a change in form does not mean a change in quantity and become able to understand simple math and conservation.
Formal Operation Stage
-From about age 12 through adulthood
-Children are no longer limited to concrete reasoning based on actual experience.
-They are able to think abstractly.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
-disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors
-Children with ASD have impaired theory of mind; reading faces and social signals is challenging for those with ASD.
-Underlying source of ASD's symptoms seems to be poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to let us take another's viewpoint.
ASD biological factors
-Abnormal brain development
-Prenatal maternal infection, inflammation, psychiatric drug use, or stress hormones
-Childhood MMR vaccines do not lead to ASD
Emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver, and showing distress on separation
person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
insecure anxious attachment
People constantly crave acceptance but remain alert to signs of rejection
insecure avoidant attachment
People experience discomfort getting close to others, and use avoidant strategies to maintain distance from others
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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