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What is the difference between agronomy and horticulture?

Agronomy is large scale crop production- mechanized

Is agronomy or Horticulture mechanized?


What do horticulture and agronomy occur on? Which one is large scale and which one is small scale?

horticulture- small
agronomy- large

Explain differences in plants and animals and similarities

1.Plants have cell walls- Animals do not
2. plants are usually rooted in one place and do not move on their own
3. Plants can make their own food- animals can not
4. Plants can make oxygen and take in carbon dioxide given off by animals -animals give off carbon dioxide which plants need to make food and animals take in oxygen to breathe
5. Plants have either no or very little ability to sense- Animals have a much more developed sensory and nervous system
1. both undergo cellular respiration
2. mitosis and meiosis
3. both require water to survive and both have cells
4. both have vascular system and use energy
5. both reproduce
6. both grow and develop

How are humans dependent on plants?

plants for food- daily needs- oxygen- medicine

Why are humans dependent on plants? (for what exactly)

Food- daily needs- oxygen- medicine

What does Genus, Species, and Cultivar tell us?

Genus similar genetics
Species- slight differences (such as short or tall)
Cultivar- a cultivated variety of a plant that has been deliberately selected for specific desirable characteristics

Who came up with the idea of classifying plants into Genus, Species, Cultivar?

Carolus Linnaeus

What does Parthenocarpic mean?

When fruit develops from absence of pollination and fertilization

What common plant is like this? (Parthenocarpic)

bananas- seedless watermelons

What are the basic parts of the plants?

Cuticle- epidermis- stomata- stems- guard cells

Explain leaf arrangements and margins

alternating-back and forth up and down the stem
opposite- straight across from each other
whirled- going in a circle around stem all connecting at one point
basil rosette- p. 18
Margins- outside edge of leaflet

What is at every node?

a dormant growing point called a bud

Identify the difference in shape of leaves

Monocot smooth edges- dicot sharp jagged edges
Page 15

What is exocarp

outer layer of the fruit wall- forms skin of a peach or a grape

what is endocarp

hard inner layer of the pericarp- such as the pit of a peach

What is mesocarp

middle layer of pericarp, fleshy part of certain fruits (drawing on lab 3)

Be able to locate exocarp, endocarp, and mesocarp on a diagram.

Lab 3 diagram- exocarp most outer part- mesocarp middle part endocarp most inner part (pit)

What is a fibrous root?

roots that spread out everywhere in smaller roots instead of one main root- more anchorage and more surface area to get water

What is a tap root?

one main root that goes straight down with a few stragglers

Where are most of the plant roots found?

between first 24 inches of the top soil

What are the parts of the roots?

Root cap- acts as a helmet (protects growing point)
Root hair- where absorption occurs- water is picked up on the root hairs- 400x smaller than human hair
Meristem- where growth occurs right above the root cap
Root apical Meristem- Where new cell growth starts- right above the root cap
Region of elongation- vacuoles swell, enlarging new cells
Region of Maturation- cells become specialed

What is the difference between monoecious vs. dioecious?

Monoecious plants- 1 house both male and female flowers (5-1 ratio of males to one female for making fruit in cucumbers) one plant
Diocecious- 2 houses (2 plants) one male one female- they want to have sex- produce many or few offspring (examples: holly, Ginkgo, Spinach, Asparagus, persimmons)

Which has both male and female parts?monoecious vs. dioecious


How do Gymnosperms and Angiosperms differ?

Angiosperms: noticable flowers- protective structure- food crops
Gmnosperms: obscure flowers- little protection (making seed not enclosed)- few food crops- produce naked seed

How do Gymnosperms and Angiosperms reproduce?

Gymnosperm- they reproduce by dropping seeds out of their cones -- ferns and conifers
Angiosperms- flowering, they pollinate them self- asexual

What is the difference between Pollination and Fertilization?

Pollination- is a transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma
Fertilization- is a combining of egg and sperm

What all does pollination include?

the transfer of pollen to a stigma

What all does fertilization include?

an egg and sperm combining
2 male parts and 3 female parts but only one female part has egg

What does poison ivy look like?

three leaves, compound leaf- goes through change of color- looses leaves in fall

How can you get poison Ivy?

have to touch it- unless you inhale smoke that has it- it will stay on foreign objects for 1 year

How severely can poison ivy harm you?

it can kill you

Describe the ways that plants receive water to receive nutrients. (water movements) give examples

xylem moves water up- phloem moves nutrients/food down
Salt allows water to move in one direction or the other
Transpirational pull- pull water to top of plant- tube gets smaller acts like a straw
Cohesion- where water molecules stick together
adhesion- where water sticks to something else
Pez example- when one water droplet is used the space that has been used is taken up by another water droplet like Pez

Lab: (Soilless Media) What is it used for?

to produce a growing media- it is used for growing plants indoor

Lab: (Asexual Propagation) Explain the most common methods of asexual propagation.

Not using seed - it is a cut from the plant and then you put the growing hormone on it

Lab: (Asexual Propagation) What are some pros and cons of asexual propagation?

Pro- small piece of a plant becomes an entire new plant- species could adapt to environment easier
Con- 2 parents have to be invoved
roots must be generated which does not usually happen (adventitious roots)

Lab: (Flower Dissection) Identify the male and female parts of a flower

(be able to identify them on a picture)

Lab: (Flower Dissection) What are the male parts and functions of a plant?

Male part stamen- pollen producing male organ (made up of anther and filament)
-anthers- pollen bearing part of stamen
-filaments- hair like stalk that anther sits on top of

Lab: (Seed Sowing) Explain the process of Germination

1. When a seed is exposed to the right conditions, water and oxygen are taken in through the seed coat.
2. embryo's cells start to enlarge
3. seed breaks open and a root emerges- followed by a shoot that contains stem and leaves

Lab: (Seed Sowing) What are the requirements for germination to take place?

Healthy seeds, Soil, planting depth, Moisture, Light, Warmth, Patience

Can flowers have all male parts, all female parts or a combination?


What are flowers with only male or only female parts called?

Imperfect (cucumbers, pumpkin, and melons)

Flowers with both male and female parts are called what?

perfect (roses, lilies, dandelion)

Frost season is around what time

October- about February or march

What is bolting?

Bolting is when a plant is mostly leaf based changes to mostly flower and seed based

Why are homegrown tomatoes better than store bought?

Store bought are picked before they are ripe
They are also treated with chemicals so they will become ripe on the trip to the store from the factory

If poison ivy does not actually poison you how does it infect people?

when the oil touches the skin many people develop an allergic reaction which causes a rash

Cuticles are located where?

on the outer part of the epidermis

How long does it take for banana plants to harvest?

9 months

What are female parts of plant and what are the functions?

Female part
-Pistil- reproduction
-stigma- sticky surface at top of pistil (provides a space for pollen to land)
-style- long stalk that stigma sits on top of
-ovary- has the seeds inside and turns them into fruit, holds the ovule's
-Ovule- part of ovary that becomes a seed

Other important parts of flowers/plants are?

Petals- attract pollinators and are usually reason we but flowers
Sepals- green petal like parts at the base of the flower (helps protect developing bud)


connects leaf to the stem


combination of cohesion and adhesion due to gravity

Solonacea family

most of the family members are poisonous- tomato and potatoes are in this family


any flowering plant- Reproduce by self pollination- cross pollination- and by wind, bees.....- has a ovary


ferns (produce spores on under of leaves)- conifers (produce needles and cones)

What is Promology?

study of fruit production

What is olericulture

study of vegetable production

What is arbroculture

study of trees

What is videculture

study of grapes

Horticulture in latin

garden cultivation- not to cultivate garden

A wind pollinated plant would have what type of seeds


A fruit is a...

ovary not ovule

Tomatoes originated where

in Peru

Cultivar is

written in English- rare type of plant that has been created and maintained through cultivation

Cambium does what

makes new xylem

Maple trees can pollinate what

Tomatoes (anything)

Many diff. species of plants bloom at the same time- 2 major mechanisms that a plant notices the right pollen to use is?

Lock: right shape
Key: chemical

Root examples: (types of food)

carrots, beats, sweet potato

Drupe examples: (types of food)

peaches, apricot

Berry: (types of food)

tomato, blueberry

Pome: (types of food)

apple, pear

What does a berry have?

Ovary- multiple seeds- Heperidium- pepos

What is hesperidium?

all citrus- all have leathery peel with oil

What is pepos?

Hard rine (cucumber, watermelon) hard rine made of exo and mesocarp

What are sinks?

The carbohydrate requiring locations

What is source to sink movement?

process of carbohydrate transfer

What are primary sinks? part of plant

roots- carbs can be stored there for future use

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