79 terms

Chapter 1 bio

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cell
smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independently or as part of a multicellular organism.
multicellular organism
individual consisting of interdependent cells
population
group of individuals of the same kind that occupy the same area
community
populations of all species that occupy the same area
ecosystem
group of communities interacting with their shared physical environment. Includes the community and the nonliving environmental factors with which it interacts.
biosphere
All regions of Earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere that sustain life.
The properties of life do not appear until complex biological molecules are arranged into ____________:
Cells
emergent properties
characteristics that depend on the level of organization of matter, but do not exist at lower levels of organization.
(Life is an emergent property of the organization of matter into cells)
unicellular organisms
bacteria and protozoans
multicellular organisms
plants and animals
Emergent properties of population
birth or death rates
DNA
large, double-stranded, helical molecule that contains instructions for assembling a living organism from simpler molecules. It is the most important molecule that distinguishes living organisms from non-living matter.
Viruses are not considered to be alive because_________________:
They cannot reproduced independently of the organisms they infect.
RNA
Ribonucleic acid, directs the synthesis (production) of different protein molecules.
proteins
carry out most of the activities of life, including the synthesis of all other biological molecules.
metabolism
the ability of a cell or organism to extract energy from its surroundings and use that energy to maintain itself, grow, and reproduce.
photosynthesis
electromagnetic energy in sunlight is absorbed and converted into chemical energy.
cellular respiration
A metabolic process where complex biological molecules are broken down with oxygen, releasing some of their energy content for cellular activities.
Primary producers
Photosynthetic organisms are the primary producers of the food on which all other organisms rely.
Consumers
Animals who directly or indirectly, feed on the complex molecules manufactured by plants.
Decomposers
Certain bacteria and fungi; they feed on the remains of dead organisms, breaking down complex biological molecules into simpler raw materials, which may then be recycled by the producers (e.g. fertilizer).
Why is energy transfer not 100 % efficient?
A portion of energy is lost as heat.
Only living organisms have diverse and varied receptors:
Molecules or larger structures located on individual cells and body surfaces that can detect changes in external and internal conditions, and compensate for them.
Body temp:
to maintain stasis, body doesnt like to go above or below around 37 degrees celsius /98.6 fahrenheit.
homeostasis
a steady internal condition maintained by responses that compensate for changes in the external environment. All organisms maintain homeostasis through temperature, blood chemistry.
reproduction
the process through which parents produce offspring.
Inheritance
The transmission of DNA from one generation to the next.
Development
A process multicellular organisms undergo characterized as a series of programmed changes encoded in DNA, through which a fertilized egg divides into many cells that ultimately are transformed into an adult, which itself is then capable of reproduction.
In most ecosystems, how does energy flow?
From the sun to producers to consumers to decomposers. Nutrients are conserved and recycled. Heat is lost.
life cycle
The sequential stages through which individuals develop, grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce.
Biological evolution
1) All populations change through time
2) All organisms are descended from a common ancestor that lived in the distant past.
3) Evolution has produced the spectacular diversity of life.
artificial selection
the quality of being produced by people and not occurring naturally. (The domestic version of natural selection).
genes
Carries DNA. Each gene contains a code for a protein molecule or one of its parts.
proteins
the molecules that establish the structures and perform important biological functions within organisms
mutations
Random changes in the structure, number, or arrangement of DNA molecules.
adaptations
characteristics that help an organism survive longer or reproduce more under a particular set of environmental conditions.
cryptic coloration
adaptations that reduce the likelihood of being captured by a predator.
species
a group of populations in which the individuals are so similar in structure, biochemistry, and behavior that they can successfully interbreed.
genus
a group of similar species that share recent common ancestry.
scientific name
The first part identifies genus, the second part designates a particular species.
Domain
The most inclusive group in the Taxonomical categories.
Family
related genera
Order
related families
Class
Related orders
Phylum
related classes
Kingdom
related phyla
phylogenetic trees
Illustrations of evolutionary pathways through which species and more inclusive groups, appears for all organisms.
Prokaryotes
Bacteria and Archaea, no nucleus.
Eukaryotes
Eukarya, DNA inclosed in nucleus.
Organelles
The nucleus and other specialized internal compartments.
Domain Bacteria
Comprises unicellular organisms (bacteria). Live as producers consumer or decomposers almost everywhere on earth. Metabolic processes most varied. Mechanisms of photosynthesis.
Domain Archaea
unicellular, microscopic organisms that live as producers or decomposers. Extremophiles. Primitive form of photosynthesis unique to their domain. They have features of DNA and RNA organization and processes of protein synthesis.
Domain Eukarya
All remaining organisms on Earth including the familiar plants and animals. Organisms with eukaryotic cell structures are known as "protists", or classified as Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
Protists
Organisms with eukaryotic cell structures. Classified as Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
In which 3 Kingdom are Protists classified?
Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
The Protists
diverse set of single-celled and multicellular eukaryotic species. Do not constitute their own kingdom because there is no common ancestor.

Protozoans, and algae.
Protozoans
Most familiar protists, primarily unicellular. Consumers and decomposers.
Algae
Protist that ranges from single-celled to large, multicellular species. Almost all are photosynthetic producers.
The Kingdom Plantae
Members are multicellular organisms that carry out photosynthesis. Function as producers in the ecosystem. Except for reproductive cells (pollen) and seeds, plants do not move from place to place. Kingdom includes flowering plants (angiosperms), conifers, and mosses.
The Kingdom Fungi
Includes a highly varied group of unicellular and multicellular species, among them yeasts and molds. Most live as decomposers by breaking down then absorbing biological molecules from dead organisms. Do not carry out photosynthesis.
The Kingdom Animalia
Multicellular organisms that live as consumers by ingesting "protists" and organisms from all three domains. Ability to move freely. Includes great range of organisms: sponges, worms, insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Basic research
Seek explanations about natural phenomena to advance collective knowledge. May not have a specific goal in mind, or inspired by specific practical concerns. Systematic investigation to establish facts.
applied research
The goal of solving practical problems. Applied research used to develop new drugs. Concerned with concrete problems or data rather than with fundamental principles.
direct observation
the most reliable and productive way to study natural phenomena.
scientific method
an investigative approach to acquiring knowledge in which scientists make observations about the natural world, develop working explanations about what they observe, and then test those explanations by collecting more information.
observational data/descriptive research
basic information on biological structures or the details of biological processes. Provides information about systems that have not yet been well studied.
experimental data/experimental science
information that describes the result of a careful manipulation of the system under study. Often answers questions about why or how systems work as the do. Cause and effect relationships. Role of a specific gene, etc.
Research steps
Step 1: Basic observation
Step 2: Develop Hypothesis
Step 3: predictions
Step 4: Experiments
hypothesis
a tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.
null hypothesis
A statement of what a scientist would see if their hypothesis being tested is not correct.
Experiment must be falsifiable, meaning:
An experiment must be falsifiable by experimentation or further observation. Scientists must describe an idea in such a way that, if it is wrong, they will be able to demonstrate that it is wrong. Helps scientists define testable, focused hypotheses. Hypotheses that are testable and falsifiable are the only ones that fall within the realm of science.
predictions
statements about what the researcher expects t happen to one variable if another variable changes.
control
represents a null hypothesis, telling us what we would see in the absence of the experimental manipulation.
experimental variable
presence or absence of something that affects the results of your experiment.
replicates
multiple subjects that receive either the same experimental treatment or the same control treatment.
model organisms
certain species or groups of organisms that have become favorite subjects for lab and field studies because their characteristics make them relatively easy subjects of research.
Model organisms have
rapid development, short life cycles, and small adult size.
biotechnology
the manipulation of living organisms to produce useful products.
scientific theory
When many different tests have consistently confirmed a hypothesis that addresses many broad questions: a plausible or scientifically acceptable, well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena and predict the characteristics of a yet unobserved phenomena.