smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independently or as part of a multicellular organism.
individual consisting of interdependent cells
group of individuals of the same kind that occupy the same area
populations of all species that occupy the same area
group of communities interacting with their shared physical environment. Includes the community and the nonliving environmental factors with which it interacts.
All regions of Earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere that sustain life.
The properties of life do not appear until complex biological molecules are arranged into ____________:
characteristics that depend on the level of organization of matter, but do not exist at lower levels of organization. (Life is an emergent property of the organization of matter into cells)
bacteria and protozoans
plants and animals
Emergent properties of population
birth or death rates
large, double-stranded, helical molecule that contains instructions for assembling a living organism from simpler molecules. It is the most important molecule that distinguishes living organisms from non-living matter.
Viruses are not considered to be alive because_________________:
They cannot reproduced independently of the organisms they infect.
Ribonucleic acid, directs the synthesis (production) of different protein molecules.
carry out most of the activities of life, including the synthesis of all other biological molecules.
the ability of a cell or organism to extract energy from its surroundings and use that energy to maintain itself, grow, and reproduce.
electromagnetic energy in sunlight is absorbed and converted into chemical energy.
A metabolic process where complex biological molecules are broken down with oxygen, releasing some of their energy content for cellular activities.
Photosynthetic organisms are the primary producers of the food on which all other organisms rely.
Animals who directly or indirectly, feed on the complex molecules manufactured by plants.
Certain bacteria and fungi; they feed on the remains of dead organisms, breaking down complex biological molecules into simpler raw materials, which may then be recycled by the producers (e.g. fertilizer).
Why is energy transfer not 100 % efficient?
A portion of energy is lost as heat.
Only living organisms have diverse and varied receptors:
Molecules or larger structures located on individual cells and body surfaces that can detect changes in external and internal conditions, and compensate for them.
to maintain stasis, body doesnt like to go above or below around 37 degrees celsius /98.6 fahrenheit.
a steady internal condition maintained by responses that compensate for changes in the external environment. All organisms maintain homeostasis through temperature, blood chemistry.
the process through which parents produce offspring.
The transmission of DNA from one generation to the next.
A process multicellular organisms undergo characterized as a series of programmed changes encoded in DNA, through which a fertilized egg divides into many cells that ultimately are transformed into an adult, which itself is then capable of reproduction.
In most ecosystems, how does energy flow?
From the sun to producers to consumers to decomposers. Nutrients are conserved and recycled. Heat is lost.
The sequential stages through which individuals develop, grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce.
1) All populations change through time 2) All organisms are descended from a common ancestor that lived in the distant past. 3) Evolution has produced the spectacular diversity of life.
the quality of being produced by people and not occurring naturally. (The domestic version of natural selection).
Carries DNA. Each gene contains a code for a protein molecule or one of its parts.
the molecules that establish the structures and perform important biological functions within organisms
Random changes in the structure, number, or arrangement of DNA molecules.
characteristics that help an organism survive longer or reproduce more under a particular set of environmental conditions.
adaptations that reduce the likelihood of being captured by a predator.
a group of populations in which the individuals are so similar in structure, biochemistry, and behavior that they can successfully interbreed.
a group of similar species that share recent common ancestry.
The first part identifies genus, the second part designates a particular species.
The most inclusive group in the Taxonomical categories.
Illustrations of evolutionary pathways through which species and more inclusive groups, appears for all organisms.
Bacteria and Archaea, no nucleus.
Eukarya, DNA inclosed in nucleus.
The nucleus and other specialized internal compartments.
Comprises unicellular organisms (bacteria). Live as producers consumer or decomposers almost everywhere on earth. Metabolic processes most varied. Mechanisms of photosynthesis.
unicellular, microscopic organisms that live as producers or decomposers. Extremophiles. Primitive form of photosynthesis unique to their domain. They have features of DNA and RNA organization and processes of protein synthesis.
All remaining organisms on Earth including the familiar plants and animals. Organisms with eukaryotic cell structures are known as "protists", or classified as Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
Organisms with eukaryotic cell structures. Classified as Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
In which 3 Kingdom are Protists classified?
Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
diverse set of single-celled and multicellular eukaryotic species. Do not constitute their own kingdom because there is no common ancestor.
Protozoans, and algae.
Most familiar protists, primarily unicellular. Consumers and decomposers.
Protist that ranges from single-celled to large, multicellular species. Almost all are photosynthetic producers.
The Kingdom Plantae
Members are multicellular organisms that carry out photosynthesis. Function as producers in the ecosystem. Except for reproductive cells (pollen) and seeds, plants do not move from place to place. Kingdom includes flowering plants (angiosperms), conifers, and mosses.
The Kingdom Fungi
Includes a highly varied group of unicellular and multicellular species, among them yeasts and molds. Most live as decomposers by breaking down then absorbing biological molecules from dead organisms. Do not carry out photosynthesis.
The Kingdom Animalia
Multicellular organisms that live as consumers by ingesting "protists" and organisms from all three domains. Ability to move freely. Includes great range of organisms: sponges, worms, insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Seek explanations about natural phenomena to advance collective knowledge. May not have a specific goal in mind, or inspired by specific practical concerns. Systematic investigation to establish facts.
The goal of solving practical problems. Applied research used to develop new drugs. Concerned with concrete problems or data rather than with fundamental principles.
the most reliable and productive way to study natural phenomena.
an investigative approach to acquiring knowledge in which scientists make observations about the natural world, develop working explanations about what they observe, and then test those explanations by collecting more information.
observational data/descriptive research
basic information on biological structures or the details of biological processes. Provides information about systems that have not yet been well studied.
experimental data/experimental science
information that describes the result of a careful manipulation of the system under study. Often answers questions about why or how systems work as the do. Cause and effect relationships. Role of a specific gene, etc.
a tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.
A statement of what a scientist would see if their hypothesis being tested is not correct.
Experiment must be falsifiable, meaning:
An experiment must be falsifiable by experimentation or further observation. Scientists must describe an idea in such a way that, if it is wrong, they will be able to demonstrate that it is wrong. Helps scientists define testable, focused hypotheses. Hypotheses that are testable and falsifiable are the only ones that fall within the realm of science.
statements about what the researcher expects t happen to one variable if another variable changes.
represents a null hypothesis, telling us what we would see in the absence of the experimental manipulation.
presence or absence of something that affects the results of your experiment.
multiple subjects that receive either the same experimental treatment or the same control treatment.
certain species or groups of organisms that have become favorite subjects for lab and field studies because their characteristics make them relatively easy subjects of research.
Model organisms have
rapid development, short life cycles, and small adult size.
the manipulation of living organisms to produce useful products.
When many different tests have consistently confirmed a hypothesis that addresses many broad questions: a plausible or scientifically acceptable, well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena and predict the characteristics of a yet unobserved phenomena.