20 terms

Types of Law

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Code of Hammurabi
__________ - a written code of rules that guided the ancient society of Babylon; dates back to 1772 B.C.
Due process
__________ - the right of people to have laws and rules that treat them fairly, so that they cannot lose their life, freedom, or property without having their legal rights protected.
Magna Carta
__________ - a government document that limited the power of the king of England and protected the rights of the nobility; written by the English nobles in 1215.
Case law
__________ - law established based on the outcome of former court cases.
Common law
__________ - law based on customs and prior legal decisions; used in civil cases.
Constitutional law
__________ - law that focuses on interpreting the U.S. Constitution.
Precedent
__________ - a court decision in an earlier case with facts and legal issues similar to those in a case currently before a court.
Regulation
__________ - a rule that a government agency makes to enforce a law.
Statutory law
__________ - laws passed by Congress or a state legislature.
Supremacy Clause
__________ - the clause that states that the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and that national laws are supreme over state laws, found in Article VI (six).
Civil law
__________ - law that deals with relationships between people (rather than relationships between people and the government).
Criminal law
__________ - law that deals with crimes and the punishments for those crimes.
Juvenile law
__________ - law that deals with people who are under the age of 18.
Military law
__________ - laws that apply only to people in the military.
Statute
__________ - a law passed at the state level.
6th Amendment
__________ - In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to . . . have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Which Supreme Court case ruled that defendants have a right to an attorney, even if they could not pay for one?
Misdemeanors
__________ are less serious crimes: traffic violations, petty theft, trespassing, vandalism, etc.
Felonies
__________ are more serious crimes: kidnapping, armed robbery, murder, etc.
military
The Uniform Code of Military Justice forms the basis of _________ law.