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what is the purpose of photosynthesis?
convert solar energy into chemical energy and then store that energy for future use
what are the reactants, processes, and products of photosynthesis?
reactants- water, light, carbon dioxide
be able to name and recognize all the parts of the chloroplast (inner and outer membrane, thylakoids, granum, stoma, thylakoid space).
Why are plants green?
chlorophyll absorbs all colors of the rainbow except for green/yellow. That green colored wavelength is reflected off the plant, and into our eyeballs, that's why plants appear green.
Where do all the processes of photosynthesis occur and what are their main purposes? (light reactions, calvin cycle)
Photosynthesis occurs in plant cells in small things called the chloroplast. Light dependent reactions occur on and in the thylakoids, they use light energy to split water, use energy to "recharge" electron carriers, oxygen is removed as a by-product. Calvin Cycle - occurs in the stoma of the chloroplast, carbon fixation process, uses energy from electron carriers to arrange carbon dioxide molecules into glucose.
What are stomata, and what do they do for plants?
Plants 'breathe' too, but they do it through tiny openings in leaves called stomata (singular: stoma). Stomata open and close to allow the intake of carbon dioxide and the release of oxygen.
Where are stomata located, and why is their location important?
Stomata are scattered throughout the epidermis of every leaf and are usually located on the side of the leaf facing downwards. Their location is important because it allows the plants to take in more oxygen.
Where do plants get their carbon from? What happens to that carbon (what does it turn into)?
Plants get their carbon from auto and factory emissions, combustions, and respiration. The plants convert the carbon back into breathable air; oxygen.
What is carbon fixation?
Carbon fixation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon dioxide to organic compounds by living organisms.
What is the purpose of cell respiration?
Cell respiration is how eukaryotes (including plants and animals) break apart glucose to produce ATP; provides cells with the energy they need to function.
What are the reactants, processes, and products of cell respiration?
Reactants - glucose, oxygen
Processes - glycolysis, kreb's cycle, electron transport chain.
Products - carbon dioxide, water, ATP
Be able to name and recognize all the parts of the mitochondria. (inner and outer membrane, cristae, matrix)
Where do all the processes of cell respiration occur and what are their main purposes? (glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain).
Glycolysis - occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell, splits glucose in half to make two pyruvic acid, uses two ATP but produces 4, for a net gain of 2 ATP.
Kreb's Cycle - occurs in the matrix, but only if oxygen is present, further modifies pyruvic acid to get more energy, makes 2 ATP, transfers a lot of energy into carriers NADH and FADH2.
Electron Transport Chain - occurs on inner membrane, uses electron carriers to make hydrogen concentration gradients to activate ATP synthase which produces 38 ATP.
What are the two types of fermentation and what do they produce?
The two types of fermentation are aerobic and anaerobic, they produce sour or more acidic products that have a longer shelf life.
What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
aerobic respiration is when oxygen is present, so the kreb's cycle and the ETC can occur, anaerobic respiration (fermentation) occurs when oxygen is not present, so the kreb's cycle and ETC cannot occur.
How does the electron transport chain work?
At the mitochondrial inner membrane, electrons from NADH and FADH2 pass through the electron transport chain to oxygen, which is reduced to water.
How much ATP is made with both glycolysis, the krebs cycle, AND aerobic respiration put together?
How much ATP does fermentation make?
What is the difference between red and white muscle fibers?
muscle is further divided into two broad types slow twitch and fast twitch type
Where does the oxygen needed for the kreb's cycle come from?
aerobic process; oxygen comes from the breathing
Know what happens during the following stages of the cell cycle: G1, S, G2 (interphase), Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (mitosis), cytokinesis.
(HHMI Cell Cycle Interactive Activity WS)
Know what the checkpoints do for G1, S, G2, and mitosis.
G1 - rest or divide
S - DNA ok
G2 - fully equipped
Mitosis - are any sister chromatids unattached
Know how cancer is related to the cell cycle (basically, how does cancer cells form? what happens to those checkpoints to cause cancer?)
Cancer is unchecked cell growth. Mutations in genes can cause cancer by accelerating cell division rates or inhibiting normal controls on the system, such as cell cycle arrest or programmed cell death. As a mass of cancerous cells grows, it can develop into a tumor.
Where is the genetic material located?
what are the cells made in meiosis?
What is the hierarchal structure of proteins?
What does the inner membrane divide the mitochondria into?
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