Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (70)
Etiology and Risk Factors of heart failure
CAD, myocardial pain, bad valves, hypertension
What is the number one risk factor for heart failure?
ventricles fail to contract
heart cannot completely relax
Manifestations of Heart Failure
acute, chronic, hyper-metabolic, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Acute heart failure
MI or injury
Chronic heart failure
progressive deterioration of cardiac muscle
Hyper-Metabolic heart failure causes
hyperthyroidism, infection, anemia, pregnancy
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea
fluid back up to heart and lungs when lying down
Manifestations of PND
dry cough and heart and kidney failure
3 Things to know about RAAS with heart failure
extreme pressure on kidneys, vasoconstriction, sodium and potassium retention
Sign of excess sodium to monitor for
seizures, change in LOC
Sign of excess potassium to monitor for
Blockage of coronary arteries
can cause weakening of the heart which causes ischemia and infarction
blocked lumen in branch of coronary artery
Congestion in the lungs has what impact on the heart?
heart will be enlarged and displace the apical pulse
Hepatomegaly can cause what? At risk for what?
anorexia. at risk for nutritional deficit and weight loss
Main causes of left sided heart failure
Left sided heart failure is involved with what?
the heart not pumping oxygenated blood to the body and it backing up to the lungs
Manifestations and assessment of a patient with left-sided heart failure
cough, SOB, dyspnea, orthopnea, oliguria, S3, weight gain, edema, cyanosis
What are people with left-sided heart failure at risk for?
pneumonia and pulmonary edema
What is the earliest sign of left-sided heart failure?
cough, worse at night
Signs of worsening of pulmonary edema
pink, frothy sputum, cold and clammy, cyanotic
Right sided heart failure
increased pressure in pulmonary vasculature, increased venous congestion, peripheral edema
Increased pressure in pulmonary vasculature leads to
Increased venous congestion leads to
Manifestations of right-sided heart failure
fluid retention, JVD, peripheral edema, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, ascites, polyuria, weight gain, anorexia
What is one of the first signs of right-sided heart failure
polyuria especially at night
Nursing considerations and interventions for patients with right sided heart failure
daily weights, daily abdomen measurement, I&Os
Diagnostic tests for heart failure
electrolytes, urinalysis, BUN, chest X-ray, echocardiogram, ABGs, thyroid and liver functions tests
What does b-type natriuretic protein measure?
how heart is functioning
When is B-type natriuretic protein released?
when patient has fluid overload
no heart failure
heart failure present
mild heart failure
moderate heart failure
severe heart failure
What does b-type natriuretic protein promote?
vasodilation and sodium loss
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme actions
arterial dilation, increase stroke volume, decrease BP
Risk factor for pt taking an ACE inhibitor and why?
falls because their blood pressure is going to fall
Nursing considerations when administering ACE inhibitor
monitor BP Q2H after first dose, monitor potassium
What might the patient develop when taking an ACE inhibitor?
Why would the nurse hold an ACE inhibitor or ARB?
if HR is <60 or if SPB is <100
ACE inhibitor medications
Lisinopril, captopril, accupril, altace, vasotec
decrease arterial resistance and dilation
cozaar and diovan
What should be monitored in patients taking ACE or ARB?
monitor potassium, sodium and blood pressure
What should be monitored in patients taking diuretics?
daily weight, BUN, creatinine, potassium
Patients taking diuretics are at a high risk for what?
hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone
What should be monitored when a patient is taking spironolactone?
monitor for hyperkalemia
Beta-adrenergic blocker action
Beta blocker drugs
Beta adrenergic agonists drugs
Dobutamine and milrinon (primacor)
Positive inotropic actions
improves contractility, lowers HR and slows conduction
Therapeutic range for digoxin
Action of nitroglycerin
Nursing considerations for heart failure medications
weight and vitals, I&Os, assess for volume depletion, renal function, electrolytes
Which is the most important and why?: dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia
tachycardia because its a late sign of heart failure
Important points of physical assessment:
lung sounds, cough, SOB, liver and spleen, peripheral pulses, peripheral edema, JVD, capillary refill
Decreased cardiac output considerations
want to reduce workload of the heart, supply oxygen, S3, never lie patient flat, assess the lungs
Excess fluid volume considerations
monitor I&Os, monitor daily weights, record abdominal girth, assess respiratory status, restrict fluids
What are some important patient education points?
sodium restriction, weight gain, taking a pulse, medications
Modifiable risk factors for heart failure
smoking, diet, exercise, hypertension, obesity
thin and weakened walls of the heart
Signs and symptoms of infectious endocarditis
murmurs, petechiae, confusion
What is the most common complication of infectious endocarditis?
Nonsurgical management of infectious endocarditis
antimicrobials and activities balanced with rest
Surgical management of infectious endocarditis
removal of valve or shunts, repair of valve, shunts or chord tendinae, draining of abscesses
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Adult Health Cardiac/Midterm Review
AH midterm values
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Midterm- Heart Failure
ATI chapter 32 heart failure and pulmonary Edema
ATI chapter 32 heart failure and pulmonary Edema
Chapter 29- medsurg exam 3
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Evidence Based Practice Exam 1
Baroque Final Slides
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Medical Review 2
Changing family patterns.
nervous system 1