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Earth's Internal Processes
Chapters 10, 11, 12
Terms in this set (36)
Wegener's hypothesis that all continents were once connected in a single large landmass that broke apart about 200 million years ago and drifted slowly to their current positions.
Large ancient landmass that was composed of all the continents joined together.
Hess's theory that new seafloor is formed when magma is forced upward toward the surface at a mid-ocean ridge.
theory that Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move around on a plastic like layer of the mantle
Sections of the Earth's crust and upper mantle
rigid layer of Earth about 100km thick, made of the crust and a part of the upper mantle.
plastic like layer of Earth on which the lithospheric plates float and move around.
current in Earth's mantle that transfers heat in Earth's interior and is the driving force for plate tectonics.
surface along which rocks move when they pass their elastic limit and break.
vibrations produced when rocks break along a fault.
break in rock caused by tension forces, where rock above the fault surface moves down relative to the rock below the fault surface.
break in rock caused by compressive forces where rock above the fault surface moves upward relative to the rock below the fault surface.
break in rock caused by shear forces, where rocks move past each other without much vertical movement.
wave generated by an earthquake.
in an earthquake, the point below Earth's surface where energy is released in the form of seismic waves.
seismic wave that moves rock particles back and forth in the same direction that the wave travels.
seismic wave that moves rock particles at right angles to the direction of the wave.
seismic wave that moves rock particles up and down in a backward rolling motion side to side in a swaying motion.
point of Earth's surface directly above an earthquakes focus.
instrument used to register earthquake waves and record the time that each arrived.
measure of the energy released during an earthquake.
occurs when wet soil acts more like a liquid during an earthquake.
seismic sea wave that begins over an earthquake focus and can be highly destructive when it crashes on shore.
opening in earth's surface that erupts sulfurous gases, ash, and lava: can form at earth's plate boundaries, where plates move apart or together, and at hot spots.
opening where magma is forced up and flows out onto Earth's surface as lava, forming a volcano.
steep-walled depression around a volcano's vent.
the result of an unusually hot area at the boundary between earth's mantle and core that forms volcanoes when melted rock is forced upward and breaks through the crust.
broad, gently sloping volcano formed by quiet eruptions of basaltic lava.
bits of rock or solidified lava dropped from the air during and explosive volcanic eruption; ranges in size from volcanic ash to volcanic bombs and blocks.
cinder cone volcano
steep sided, loosely packed volcano formed when tephra falls to the ground.
volcano built by alternating explosive and quiet eruptions that produce layers of tephra and lava; found mostly where Earth's plates come together and one plate sinks below the other.
largest intrusive igneous rock body that forms when magma being forced upward toward Earth's crust cools slowly and solidifies underground.
igneous rock feature formed when magma is squeezed into a vertical crack that cuts across rock layers and hardens underground.
igneous rock feature formed when magma is squeezed into horizontal crack between layers of rock and hardens underground.
solid igneous core of a volcano left behind after the softer cone has been eroded.
large, circular-shaped opening formed when the top of a volcano collapses.
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