Commercial Uses of Microbes
Chapter 28 and Chapter 1 (Just page 3)
Terms in this set (17)
Dairy Products - Cheese
Curd is formed by action of enzyme rennin
Lactic Acid producing bacteria ripen cheese - Longer ripening leads to more acidic cheese.
Propionibacterium produces CO2 which makes the holes in Swiss cheese.
Penicillium molds produce blue-green clumps in blue cheese.
Dairy Products - Buttermilk and Sour Cream
Originally a byproduct of butter making, now lactic acid is used to create flavor.
Dairy Products - Yogurt
Streptococcus thermophilus produces acid
Lactobacillus delbrueckii produces flavor
Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce bubbles of CO2 in bread
Lactic acid bacteria may add flavor to bread
Fermentation also produces sauerkraut, pickles, and olives.
Alcoholic Beverages and Vinegar
Beverages made from grain:
Yeast do not use starch. Instead starch must be converted to sugar
Malting: sprouted seeds contain enzymes to convert starch to sugar (amylase)
Yeast dies as alcohol reaches about %14
Beverages with higher alcohol % are distilled
Process of Making Wine:
Vinegar is produces when wine is exposed to air: Aerobic bacteria produce acetic acid from ethanol.
Industrial Production: Fermentation Technology
Most select for bacteria that over produce
May place gene in another microbe
Bioreactors are large containers used to culture microorganisms.
Monitor temperature, pH, aeration
Produced during the log phase
Produced during the stationary phase
Made from primary metabolites in response to crowding and waster products
Industrial Production of Xanthan
Used as a thickener in food and cosmetics
Produced by Xanthomonas campestris from whey
Industrial Production of Amino Acids
Lysine and methionine are animal feed additives
Phenylalanine and aspartic acid are used to make artificial sweeteners
Industrial Production of Citric Acid
Produced by a type of mold
Use molasses as a substrate
Industrial Production of Enzymes
Amylase - corn syrup and glucose
Proteolytic enzymes - soybean fermentation
Glucose isomerase - glucose to fructose
Rennin - curd production
Cellulase - stone-washed jeans
Industrial Production of Vitamins
B12, riboflavin, C
Industrial Production of Pharmaceuticals