Upgrade to remove ads
AP European History: Chapter 25 (War and Revolution (1914-1919))
Terms in this set (100)
The alliance of Austria, Germany, and Italy. Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression.
The alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia prior to and during the First World War.
A failed German plan on calling for a lightning attack through neutral Belgium and a quick defeat of France before turning on Russia.
A war in which distinctions between the soldiers on the battlefield and civilians at home are blurred, and where the government plans and controls economic and social life in order to supply the armies at the front with supplies and weapons.
A type of fighting used in World War I behind those of trenches, minds, and barbed wire; the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal.
Unplanned uprisings accompanied by violent street demonstrations begun in March 1917 (old calendar February) in Petrograd, Russia, that led to the application of the tsar and the establishment of a provisional government.
A huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905.
Lenin's radical, revolutionary arm of the Russian party of Marxist socialism, which successfully installed a dictatorial socialist regime in Russia.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A peace treaty signed in March 1918 between the Central Powers and Russia that ended Russian participation in World War I and ceded Russian territories containing a third of the Russian Empire's population to the Central Powers.
The application of centralized state control during the Russian Civil War, in which the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work.
Treaty of Versailles
The 1919 peace settlement that ended war between Germany and the Allied powers.
Wilsons 1918 peace proposal calling for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, freedom of commerce and trade, the establishment of the League of Nations, and national self-determination.
League of Nations
A permanent international organization, established during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, designed to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars.
The notion that peoples should be able to choose their own national governments through democratic majority-rule elections and live free from outside interference in the nation-states with clearly defined borders.
War guilt clause
An article in the Treaty of Versailles that declared that Germany (and Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the fighting.
The plan to allow Britain and France to administer former Ottoman territories, put into place after the end of World War I.
A 1917 British statement that declared British support of a national home for the Jewish People in Palestine.
German initiative to isolate France
From 1871 to the late 1880s, Bismarck signed a series of defense alliances with Austria-Hungary and Russia designed to isolate France.
In 1890 the new emperor William II dismissed the alliance with Bismarck because William II disagreed with Bismarck's friendly policy toward Russia.
Many German and some Britons felt the advanced, racially related Germanic and Anglo-Saxon peoples were natural allies.
This alliance never shaped as a result of a mid-18th-century Anglo-German rivalry.
This is likely due to fierce commercial, colonial, militaristic, and industrial competition between Britain and Germany.
First Moroccan Crisis in 1905
In 1905 William II declared that Morocco—where France had colonial interests—was an independent, sovereign state and demanded that Germany receive the same trading rights as France. This test only brought France and Britain closer.
In the 1907 Russia, battered by its disastrous war with Japan and the revolution of 1905, Russian agreed to resolve its quarrels with Great Britain in Persia and Central Asia and signed this agreement.
This agreement laid the foundation of the Triple Entente, an alliance between Britain, Russia, and France.
British spending of the "People's Budget"
British leaders saw the German build up as a military challenge that forced them to spend the this on the battleships rather than social welfare reforms.
Universal conscription (1914)
This was prominent in Germany, France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia—only Britain still relied on a volunteer army—exposed hundreds of thousands of young men to each year to military culture and discipline.
Any expression of anti-war sentiment by socialists or women's groups were seen as a betrayal of country in time of need.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
On June 28, 1914 the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, was assassinated by Serbian revolutionaries during a state visit to the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo.
He was a fanatical member of the radical group the Black Hand, shot the archduke and his wife, Sophie, in their automobile.
First Balkan War (1912)
Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman Empire and then quarreled with Bulgaria over the spoils of victory.
Second Balkan War (1913)
Bulgaria attacked its former allies which led Austria to intervene and force Serbia to give up Albania. Encouraged by their success against the Ottomans, Balkan nationalists increased their demands for freedom from Austria-Hungary, dismaying the leaders of the multinational empire.
The impact of Archduke Francis Ferdinand's assassination
This violent act instigated a five-week period of intense diplomatic activity that culminated in world war.
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
Chancellor of German Empire 1909-1917. Attempted to calm tensions with Britain but was unsuccessful due to Naval Secretary Tirpitz. Alleviated tensions with Britain during Balkan Crisis of 1912-1913.
Blank check support
This "blank check" of unconditional support encouraged the pro-war faction in Vienna to take a hard line against the Serbs at a time one moderation might still have limited the crisis.
On July 29 Tsar Nicholas II ordered full mobilization of the Russian military, which in fact declared war on both the Ottoman Empire and Germany.
The July Crisis
The speed of this time period created shock, panic, and excitement, and a frazzled public helped propel Europe into war.
Battle of the Marne
This was a First World War battle fought from 5-12 September 1914. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German Army which ultimately caused the Schlieffen plan to fail.
The Battle of Somme
A great British offensive undertaken in the summer of 1916 in northern France, exemplified the horrors of trench warfare.
As the British soldiers neared the German lines and the shelling stopped, the Germans emerged from their bunkers, set up their machine guns, and mowed down the approaching British troops.
Some 420,000 British, 200,000 French, and 600,000 Germans were killed or wounded defending and insignificant piece of land.
Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes
Germans defeat the Russians decisively in 1914.
Italian neutrality (1914)
Italy declared its neutrality in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched the war of aggression.
In May 1915 Italy switched sides to join the Triple Entente in return for promises of Austrian territory.
Ottoman juncture to the Central Powers
In October 1914 the Ottoman Empire joined Austria and Germany, by then known as the Central Powers.
The following September Bulgaria followed the Ottoman Empire's lead in order to settle old scores with Serbia.
The entry of the Ottomans carried to the war into the Middle East.
Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.
Battle of Gallipoli (1915)
British forces tried and failed to take the Dardanelles and Constantinople from the Ottoman Turks.
Hussein ibn Ali (1856-1931)
During WWI, he was the chief magistrate (sharif) of Mecca, the holiest city in the Muslim world.
British commonwealth soldiers
Soldiers from British commonwealth members Canada, Australia, and New Zealand fought with the British; those from Australia and New Zealand fought with particular distinction in the failed assault on Gallipoli.
Sinking of the Lusitania
This British passenger liner was sank in May 1915 by a German submarine. This disaster claimed more than 1,000 lives, among them 139 were US citizens.
American President Woodrow Wilson protested vigorously, using the tragedy to incite American public opinion against the Germans.
He was a Jewish industrialist that convinced the German government to set up the War Raw Materials Board to ration and distribute raw materials.
The board to launch successful attempts to seduce substitutes, such as synthetic rubber nitrates, for scarce war supplies.
German Auxiliary Service Law
Following the terrible battles of Verdun and the Somme in 1916, German military leaders forced the Reichstag to accept this law, which required all males between 17 and 60 to work only at jobs considered critical for the war effort
Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff
These German generals were heroes at Tannenberg and drove Chancellor Bethmann Hollweg from office.
With the support of the newly formed ultraconservative Fatherland Party, the generals established a military dictatorship.
Totalitarianism in Germany
In Germany total war led to the establishment of history's first "totalitarian" society, a model for future National Socialists, or Nazis.
British Ministry of Munitions
After 1915 this group organized private industry to produce for the war, allocated labor, set wage and price rates, and settled labor disputes.
French response to pacifism
In France, a weakened parliament met without public oversight, and the courts jailed pacifists who dared criticize the state.
Weakened wartime liberties in the US
Once the United States joined the war, new federal agencies such as the War Labor Board and the War Industries Board regulated industry, labor relations, and agricultural production, well the Espionage and Sedition Acts weakened American civil liberties.
Wartime impact on women's role
The role of women changed dramatically as they moved into skilled industrial jobs that were long considered to be men's work.
The war expanded the range of women's activities and helped change attitudes about proper gender roles, but the long-term results were mixed.
Women's war effort and suffrage demands
As a result of the women's war effort, the United States, Britain, Germany, Poland, and other countries granted women the right to vote immediately after the war, but women's rights movement stated in the 1920s and 1930s, in large part because feminist leaders of the difficult to regain momentum after the crisis of war.
Karl Liebknecht (1871-1919)
Communist leader along with Rosa Luxemburg. Part of the Spartacist uprising. Killed by the Freikorps.
Georges Clemenceau during WWI (1841-1929)
In France, he established a virtual dictatorship, arrested strikers, and jailed without trial journalist and politicians who dared to suggest a compromise peace with Germany.
During this rebellion, armed republican militias took over parts of Dublin and proclaimed an independent Irish republic.
After about a week of biter fighting, British troops crushed the rebels of the executed their leaders.
Though the Republicans were defeated, the punitive aftermath fueled old anti-British sentiment in Ireland.
Sinn Fein Party
The party that led the Irish Nationalists in their uprisings and fought a war to gain Irish independence in the 1920s.
Only tough military justice, including executions for mutiny leaders, and a tacit agreement with the troops that there would be no more grand offensive's and a bold the new General-in-chief to restore order within the French military.
Battle of Camporetto (1917)
After this battle the Italian army collapsed following this battle.
Leadership crisis for the Central powers (1916)
In October 1916 a young socialist assassinated the chief minister of Austria-Hungary.
The following month, when the aging Emperor Francis Joseph died, the symbol of unity within the Central Powers had disappeared.
Tsar Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917)
Last Tsar of Russia and then end of the Romanov line. Was executed along with the rest of his family under the order of Lenin.
The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Tsar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.
In September 1915 parties ranging from conservative to moderate to socialist formed the _____, which called for a completely new government responsible to the Duma instead of the tsar.
She was put in charge of Russia when Nicholas II left. She relied on the advice of Rasputin who had the miraculous power to cure her son who had hemophilia.
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues.
Violence in Petrograd
In March 1917 violent demonstrations broke out in Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg), spread to the factories, and engulfed the city.
Soldiers were ordered to open fire on the protesters but they refused to shoot and joined the revolutionary crowd instead.
A respected member of the Duma and a Soviet; he was chosen to be the leader of the provisional government that replaced Nicholas II.
Army Order No. 1
This was most famous edict of the Petrograd Soviet, issued in the May 1917, which stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.
This order led to a collapse of army discipline.
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. They wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
The Bolshevik minority
The Bolsheviks had only a 10% majority of a single vote, but to London kept the name for propaganda reasons and they became the revolutionary party that he wanted: tough, disciplined, and led from above.
Lenin's views on war
Lenin viewed the war as a product of imperialist rivalries and an opportunity for socialist revolution.
General Lavr Kornilov
Following a premature attempt to seize power, as the Commander in chief of the Russian army, he led a feeble coup against the provisional Kerensky government in September.
In the face of Bolshevik opposition, his forces disintegrated, but he lost all credit with the army, the only force that might have saved democratic government in Russia.
Lenin's ally who organized and led to Bolshevik military takeover of the provisional government headed by Kerensky, in November 1917 (1879-1940).
He was the leader of the Red Army.
The Whites came from many social groups and were united only by their hatred of communism and the Bolsheviks—the Reds.
The secret police under Lenin and his Communist Party.
The "Red Terror"
Between 1918 to 1920 this helped establish the secret police as a central tool of the new communist government.
Spring Offensive of 1918
In this attack Ludendorff launched an extensive attack on the French lines.
German armies came within 35 miles of Paris, but Ludendorff's exhausted forces never broke through.
Second Battle of Marne
Allied victory where Ludendorff and the German army tried to march into France, but by the time they reached the Western front, 140,000 fresh American soldiers had arrived and were able to defeat the Germans.
November 11, 1918
An armistice went into affect and the war was officially over.
In Germany, moderates from the Social Democratic Party and their liberal allies held onto power and established this republic—a democratic government that would lead Germany for the next 15 years.
This attempted to bring about a proletarian revolution in Germany with the aid of Russian Bolsheviks. Crushed by the Social Democrats government, aided by demobilized army officers and volunteers. Leaders were arrested and shot. Led to a wider gap between the Social Democrats and Communists.
Free Corps militias
These were bands of demobilized soldiers who had kept their weapons, to crush the uprisings. They were called on by Social Democrats.
The "Big Three" at the Paris peace conference
This included the United States, Great Britain, and France as they controlled the conference
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia were excluded.
British prime minister, although he was re-elected for his popular campaign of making Germany pay for the war, he ended up fighting the most for German interests in the Versailles Treaty because he feared communism.
The French prime minister who wanted to ensure that Germany would never again threaten France; at the Paris Peace Conference.
Territorial mandates within the Treaty of Versailles
Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France.
Ethnic Polish territories seized by Prussia during the 18th-century partition of Poland were returned to a new independent Polish state.
This was the "war-guilt clause" in the Treaty of Versailles that placed total responsibility for World War I on Germany.
Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916)
An agreement between the British and the French. France gets Syria and Lebanon, and Britain gets Iraq, Palestine, and Transjordan.
Balfour Declaration (Nov. 1917)
This was written by British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour, had announced that Britain favored a "National Home for the Jewish People" in Palestine, but without discriminating against the civil and religious rights of the non-Jewish communities already. living in the region
General Syrian Congress (1919)
The congress proclaimed Syria an independent kingdom; a similar Congress declared Iraqi independence.
These actions prompted the French to take Damascus in July 1920 when the Arab government fled.
Mustafa Kemal (1881-1938)
A brilliant commander who successfully led Turkish nationalists in fighting back the Greeks and their British backers.
As a nationalist without religious faith, believed that Turkey should modernize and secularize along Western lines.
The "father of modern Turkey"
Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
This treaty recognized the territorial integrity of Turkey and solemnly abolished the hatred capitulations that the European powers had imposed over the centuries to give their citizens special privileges in the Ottoman Empire.
Uprising in 1917 that led to Russia's withdrawal from WWI, when Lenin and the Bolsheviks were falsely accused of inciting an attempt to overthrow provisional government. immediate problem for Bolsheviks was the the Constitute Assembly. Lenin w/ the Bolsheviks declares the land nationalized and turned it over to local rural soviets.
Great opposition to new Bolshevik regime, from bourgeois and aristocratic liberals and anti-Leninist socialists. thousands of allied troops were sent to parts of Russia to bring Russia back into the war.
Red army and White force
Bolshevik (Red army), forced to fight on various fronts, first serious threat from Siberia was the White force (anti-Bolshevik) under control of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. They pushed west and advanced nearly to the Volga river.
General Anton Denikin
probably the most effective of White generals got past Ukraine and all the way to Moscow almost.
the royal family
a victim of the cival war. Tsar's children were sent away and they got murdered.
Red army progression
became very well-disciplined, good fighting force, mostly caused by organizational thoughts by Leon Trotsky. He reinstated the draft and gave commands to former tsarist army officers. Had advantage of interior lines of defense and was able to move troops rapidly across the battlefield.
White forces issues
Admiral Kolchak (a former white) wanted to restore tsarist regime. many others knew inside that a liberal and democratic program was the only thing that could have success. Political differences made it difficult. A common goal wasn't possible and communists had a single-minded sense of purpose. Communists had advantage of having determinations that came from revolutionary fervor/ revolutionary convocations.
Red secret police - The Cheka
aimed at destruction of all those who opposed the new regime.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP EURO 26
AP EURO 26
Chapter 25: War and Revolution
ch 25 p2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Macro unit 2 GDP and more bs
Canada Provinces/Capitals, Canada Provin…
AP World subregions
Major Bodies of Water in the World