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early literacy midterm 2
Terms in this set (39)
What is the relationship between reading and writing?
Just like teachers need to have a good relationship with their student, students need to understand that reading and writing have a powerful relationship full of similarities and differences. You need to use both reading and writing to successfully teach and learn. You cannot have one without the other.
How are reading and writing the same?
1. Both reading and writing are purposeful activities.
2. Both reading and writing are a process.
It is crucial that we encourage children to read and write in authentic and purposeful ways so that they can see the power that reading and writing have for _________ and __________.
solving problems and getting things accomplished in their lives
how are reading and writing different?
1. writers express text for a purpose, but readers access text for a purpose.
2. writers always produce a product, but readers sometimes produce a product.
3. writing is a slower process, and reading is a quicker process.
4. writers must choose their topics, but readers must read about a topic a writer chooses.
5. writers choose their own structures, but readers are introduced to new structures.
6. writers go from sound to print while readers go from print to sound
what are subskills of reading?
word recognition and phonics
what are subskills of writing?
spelling, handwriting, and written expression
when students write, they have to think about what to write and how to say it. What is this called?
when students write, they have to say each word, listen for the sounds, and try to reproduce the letters to make up the word. What is this called?
in order to reproduce letters, students must also know how to form each individual letter. what is this called?
what does writer's posture look like?
1. feet flat on the floor
2. thighs parallel to the floor.
3. knees at a 90 degree angle.
4. back up straight
5. paper stabilized by non dominant hand
6. neck and shoulders relaxed.
Good posture is important for begging writers because:
maintaining good posture ensures your body is in good alignment and that stress on your muscles, joints, and ligaments are evenly distributed across your body. when your body is relaxed and ready to write, new writers can focus on their writing, rather than how they're sitting.
Why do children hold their writing utensils in different ways and what can teachers learn from observing this?
from 1-3 years of age, children do not have the fine motor skills to hold a writing utensil correctly. Teachers can learn where their students are cognitively when it comes to handwriting by how they hold writing utensils.
Planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing.
the writing process
this consists of different components such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and grammar.
why do we use traits language with our primary grade students?
the purpose of traits is to provide a common language for teachers and students that persists across grade levels. it can be used for both writing and evaluating and therefore keeps students and teachers on the same level of understanding during the writing process.
What is the difference between assessing a writing sample and assessing a writer?
when assessing a writing sample, you are only looking at the writing and assessing the specific traits needed to improve the sample itself. when you assess the writer, you are assessing everything you know about the writer as a person.
what are some important understands that teachers should keep in mind when working with children from diverse language backgrounds?
1. teachers should recognize that the linguistic form the student brings to school is intimately connected with loved ones, community, and personal identity.
2. understand that students who do not speak english as their first language are less likely to succeed economically than their peers who do not speak english.
3. teachers need to teach their child to code switch.
what is the great divide?
the great divide refers to children who come to school with thousands of words in their heads vs. children who come form language-deprived backgrounds. .
what are the implications of the great divide for teachers in the early grades?
the great divide can be noticeable in families of higher income vs. families in lower incomes.
what are other factors that contribute to the great divide?
low-interaction lifestyles, technology, parents working more than one job, and having fewer siblings.
mean length of utterance
How can preschool teachers use MLU?
preschool teachers can take MLU and help students gain the necessary words they need to meet their MLU. If students are not speaking as much as they should, teachers can refer them to speech therapy or prompt them to speak more.
What ages is MLU relevant for?
What are the three complex oral language skills that predict future reading success?
2. listening comprehension
3. learning word meanings
the sender of the message encodes information to send it to someone
the receiver of the message decodes the information
why is listening comprehension important for reader development?
listening comprehension is a good predictor of individual differences in reading comprehension because it draws on many relevant linguistic abilities and cognitive resources.
What are some appropriate metacognitive listening strategies to teach children to use before listening to a text?
1. plan for the listening task.
2. set a purpose
3. decide if more linguistic or background knowledge is needed.
4. determine whether to enter the text from the top down (overall meaning) or from the bottom up (focuses on words and phrases)
What are some appropriate metacognitive listening strategies to teach children to use during listening to a text?
1. monitor comprehension
2. verify predictions and check for inaccurate guesses.
3. decide what is and is not important to understand.
4. listen and view again to check comprehension.
5. ask for help.
What are some appropriate metacognitive listening strategies to teach children to use after listening to a text?
1. monitor comprehension.
2. evaluate comprehension and strategy use.
3. evaluate comprehension in a particular task.
4. evaluate overall progress in listening and in particular types of listening tasks.
5. decide if the strategies used were appropriate for the purposes and for the task.
6. modify strategies if necessary.
What are some potential barriers to successful listening comprehension?
1. speakers speak too fast.
2. speakers use too many unfamiliar words.
3. speakers accents are unfamiliar.
4. listeners listen word for word.
5. listeners lack cultural or background knowledge.
6. listeners take too much effort and concentration.
7. listeners cannot recognize words they know when they hear them.
explain the relationship between background knowledge and schema
background knowledge is everything you know about a subject. schema is the way we organize all of our background knowledge.
How do background knowledge and schema relate to reading comprehension?
If you do not have the background knowledge of the subject you are reading about, then you will not have a proper understanding of it.
Provide a temporary support system during a child's instructional time.
the use of graphic organizers to make lessons more visual, and pre-teach academic vocabulary are ways to scaffold for _____?
English Language Learners
What are the reading comprehension strategies that appear at some pointn in Mississippi's state standards for Kindergarten through 3rd grade?
It is a good ideaa to make a picture in our minds as we read
explain how to visualize the story. ask the student what a character looks like
explain when and why a certain skill should be used
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