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Terms in this set (96)
What are the three macronutrients
carbohydrates, proteins, fats
What are the two micronutrients
vitamins & minerals
What body tissues do fats provide structure to
nerves & cell membranes
Are vitamins or minerals composed of carbon
Which vitamins are water soluble
B & C (a bee goes into the sea)
Which vitamins are fat soluble
A, D, E, & K (A DECK of cards)
What are the four major minerals
calcium, sodium, potassium, & chloride
What are the four minor ("trace") minerals
iron, zinc, copper, & iodine (metals are minor bc you mine for them)
Water makes up _____% of body weight
requirement (EAR) meets the nutrient needs of ___% of a population
50% (it's the average on bell curve)
Nutrient intake ABOVE the __________ would be harmful
tolerable upper intake level
What is the difference between enriched and fortified food?
Enriched: replaces nutrients lost in processing of the food
Fortified: adds nutrients not originally present in food (milk is fortified with Vitamin D)
What are the three types of salivary glands
parotid, sublingual, & submandibular
What is the primary function of the stomach
What are the three sections of the small intestine in order
duodenum -> jejunum -> ileum
Absorption of water, sodium, chloride, potassium, & vitamin k happen in the...
Where are most carbohydrates absorbed?
What are the three monosaccharides?
glucose, fructose, & galactose
What are the three disaccharides?
sucrose, lactose, & maltose
1. What is the recommended amount of carbs that should be taken in per day
2. What percent of total daily calories should carbs constitute
1. 3-12 g/kg of BW
What is the equation for glycemic load (GL)?
(GI x CHO content per serving) / 100
In the 4-24 hours leading up to a competition, carbs should make up what percent of an athlete's total calories?
60-70% (mostly carbs!!!)
In the 4 hours right before competition, how many carbs should an athlete have?
1-4 grams/kg of BW (I would have 80-320 g of carbs)
How many carbs should be consumed DURING competition?
30-60 grams per HOUR (essentially a gram every minute while competing)
Why is it important to consume carbs after exercise?
For glycogen replenishment!!!
How many carbs should an athlete eat AFTER competition?
1 gram/kg BW
for 4 hours post-exercise
What is the main enzyme that breaks down fats?
Where is the only place fats are absorbed?
By which mechanism are fats absorbed?
What is the most common type of dietary lipid?
Phospholipids (the less common type of lipids) have which major function?
make up cell membranes
What forms the triglyceride "backbone" that three fatty acids are attached to
(a three-carbon molecule)
What type of fatty acid chain is NO double bonds
Explain the process of hydrogenation
adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids turning them into
What are phospholipids composed of
a glycerol backbone, two fatty acids + phosphate group
What is the most common sterol
Fats should consume ___% of total daily calories
What is the bad type of cholesterol?
LDL (Loser cholesterol)
How much fat should be consumed DURING exercise?
NONE (slow to digest)
What two categories of macronutrients should you consume post-exercise?
carbs and fats (duh)
What 2 enzymes in the small intestine help break down proteins?
proteases and peptidases
Where is nearly all protein absorbed?
small intestine (sodium potassium pump helps get amino acids into cells)
What are amino acids composed of?
C, H, O & N
What bonds hold proteins together?
How many essential (must come from diet) amino acids?
Therefore 11 amino acids that our body produces
What type of protein is digested well and usually comes from
high-quality proteins (has all essential amino acids)
What type of protein is usually incomplete and usually comes from
___________ proteins are incomplete proteins that provide a full complement of all essential amino acids when eaten together
Name three functions of protein in the body
tissue building, cell functioning, and making hormones
What is the equation for nitrogen balance
Nitrogen balance = (nitrogen in) - (nitrogen out)
you want it to be POSITIVE bc we need nitrogen in our bodies
How many ounces of lean meat should be consumed 1-4 hours before competition
2-4 oz (carbs should predominate)
How many grams of protein should be consumed after exercise?
15-25 grams (about 1 scoop of powder)
Do fat soluble or water soluble vitamins have a higher potential for toxicity?
FAT SOLUBLE (you can pee out water soluble vitamins!)
Functions of thiamin (b-complex vitamin)
energy production and nervous system
Function of riboflavin (b-complex vitamin)
What is a function of all b-complex vitamins
Red, cracked lips and a sore throat mean you might be deficient in...
riboflavin (*R*ed lips =
oflavin (*R*ed lips = *R*iboflavin deficiency)
Function of niacin (B-complex vitamin)
What are the functions of vitamin B6? (an important one!)
nervous system function
blood (it is in hemoglobin)
What are the functions of vitamin B12 (aka cobalamin)?
nervous system function
What are functions of folate (B-complex vitamin)
"Folate fuels cell division"
DNA synthesis/cell division
What vitamin is also known as a
vitamin A (helps your retina)
What are the three types of retinoids
What are the compounds found in plants, not considered vitamins, that can be converted to vitamin A?
carotenoids (found in colorful fruits and vegetables)
What is the sunshine vitamin
vitamin D (really good for building bones & absorbing calcium)
What vitamin allows for proper absorption of phosphorus and calcium?
What is the big function of vitamin E?
What are common sources of phytochemicals?
fruits, vegetables, and grains
What do phytochemicals protect against
cardiovascular disease & cancer (the big killers)
What is another name for trace minerals
minor minerals (need less than 100 mg a day)
what is the most abundant mineral
calcium (fills our bones)
What are the two minerals people most often supplement?
calcium and iron
What trace mineral is a component of hemoglobin and myoglobin?
What trace mineral is present in a lot of enzymes?
what trace mineral enhances the function of insulin
What mineral is important in tooth mineralization
fluoride (and phosphorus)
Losing 1 kg of water is equivalent to how many liters
What percent of water in the body is intracellular (inside the cells)
2/3 (because we are mostly cells!)
What are three major functions of water
provides cell structure, assists in pH balance, major part of blood volume
What percent of our water do we get from ingested fluids
80% (20% of water comes from foods)
What is the major avenue of water loss during REST
What is the major avenue of water loss during EXERCISE
1. taking in more water than you lose
2. losing more water than you take in
(euhydration is when you have good water balance)
What are the three phases of dehydration in heat
heat cramps -> heat exhaustion -> heat stroke
What is the single main thing that can result from drinking too much water
How many cups do you need to drink per pound of sweat lost
2-3 cups per pound lost (8 oz in cup, 16 oz in pound)
how many milliliters in one cup
you should drink ___ mL of water per kcal expended
(if you expend 2000 kcal per day, drink 2000 mL of water)
Ideal hydration leads to urination how often?
every 1-2 hours
When you acclimate to a climate do you sweat more or less
MORE (you are better at keeping yourself cooler)
How many cups of water should be consumed 4 hours prior to exercise
How many cups should be consumed 10 mins before exercise (before stepping on court)
1 cup (approx 200-300 mL)
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE SWEAT RATE?
1 LITER PER HOUR
How much water should you consume during exercise?
250 mL every 15 minutes (to replace 1 L of sweat lost per hour!!! makes sense)
1 cup = ___ fluid ounces = ___ mL
Post-exercise you should drink ___ cups of fluid for every pound lost
2-3 cups (16-24 oz)
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