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TC 4-02.1// STP 21-1 & STP 21-24// FM 4-25.11
Terms in this set (95)
What is the publication for skill level 1 First Aid?
STP 21-1 chapter 2
What does the acronym TCCC stand for?
Tactical Combat Casualty Care
How many phases are there for TCCC?
What are the three phases of TCCC?
-Care under fire
-Tactical field care
-Combat casualty evacuation care
Explain phase 1 of TCCC "Care under fire"
You are under hostile fire and are very limited as to the care you can provide
Explain phase 2 of TCCC "Tactical field care"
You and the casualty are relatively safe and no longer under effective hostile fire, and you are free to provide casualty care to the best of your ability
Explain phase 3 of TCCC "Combat casualty evacuation care"
The care rendered during casualty evacuation (CASEVAC)
What does the acronym CASEVAC stand for?
Casualty Evacuation in Non Medical Vehicle or Aircraft
When would you not provide first aid to a casualty?
If rendering aid will put your life in danger or if you find a casualty with no signs of life- no pulse, not breathing
In combat, what is the most likely threat to the casualty's life?
During care under fire, what could attempts to check for airway and breathing do to a rescuer?
Can expose the rescuer to enemy fire
When would you NOT attempt to restore the airway?
If you find a casualty with no signs of life- no pulse, not breathing
What is the first step for care under fire?
Return fire as directed or required before providing medical treatment
When would you advise the casualty to "play dead"?
If the casualty is unable to move and you are unable to move the casualty to cover and the casualty is still under direct enemy fire
What would you do if the casualty is unresponsive?
Move the casualty, his/her weapon, and mission essential equipment to cover, as the tactical situation permits
When would you apply a tourniquet?
If the casualty has severe bleeding from a limb or has suffered amputation of a limb, administer life-saving hemorrhage control before moving the casualty
When would you perform tactical field care?
When you are no longer under direct enemy fire or situations in which an injury has occurred during the mission but there has been no hostile fire
During tactical field care what medical equipment is available?
Is limited to that carried into the field by the individual soldier
When evaluating and/or treating a casualty, when would you seek medical aid?
As soon as possible. Do NOT stop treatment. If the situation allows, send another person to find medical aid
When would you stop a medical evaluation?
If there is any signs of nerve agent poisoning, stop the evaluation, take the necessary protective measures, and begin first aid
How do you determine the levels of consciousness?
-A = Alert
-V = responds to Voice
-P = responds to Pain
-U = Unresponsive
What should you do if the casualty id being burned?
Take steps to remove the casualty from the source of the burns before continuing evaluation and treatment
How do you check a casualty's response to pain?
Rub the breastbone briskly with a knuckle or squeeze the first or second toe over the toenail
What do you do if a casualty is conscious but is choking and cannot talk?
Stop the evaluation and begin treatment
When would you insert a nasopharyngeal airway (NPA)?
If the casualty is breathing
After inserting the nasopharyngeal airway how would you place the casualty?
In the recovery position
What could attempting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on casualties with inevitably fatal injuries on the battlefield result in?
May result in additional lives lost as care is diverted from casualties with less severe injuries
What are the situations that CPR on the battlefield should be considered?
Only in the case of nontraumatic disorders such as hypothermia, near drowning, or electrocution should CPR be considered prior to the CASEVAC phase
What does CPR stand for?
What could converting the tourniquet to a pressure dressing save on the casualty?
It may save the casualty's limb
Who should be issued a combat pill pack before deploying on tactical missions?
What does FMC stand for?
Field Medical Card
Who should initiate a FMC?
It is usually initiated by the combat medic. However, a certified combat lifesaver can initiate the FMC if a combat medic is not available or if the combat medic directs the combat lifesaver to initiate the card
What is the job of a soldier accompanying an unconscious casualty during CASEVAC?
The soldier should monitor the casualty's airway, breathing, and bleeding
What are the signs of a severe airway obstruction?
-Poor air exchange and increased breathing difficulty
-A silent cough
-Inability to speak or breathe
What is the "One" question you can ask a casualty you suspect is choking?
"Are you choking?"
What should you do if the casualty nods yes to the question "Are you choking?"?
Render aid for a conscious casualty choking
Can you slap a choking casualty on the back?
What could slapping a choking casualty on the back do?
This may cause the object to go down the airway instead of out
When should abdominal thrusts not be used?
-If the victim is in the advanced stages of pregnancy
-Has a significant abdominal wound
Can clearing a conscious casualty's airway obstruction be done sitting or standing?
Either standing or sitting
What should happen if a conscious casualty becomes unconscious while attempting to clear an obstruction?
Lay him/her down and then start mouth-to-mouth resuscitation procedures
What are the nine signs and symptoms of shock?
-Sweaty but cool skin
-Restlessness or nervousness
-Blotchy blue skin
-Nausea and/or vomiting
What positions should a casualty be placed in to treat for shock?
Lay the casualty on his/her back unless a sitting position will allow the casualty to breathe better
When would you not elevate the casualty's legs?
-If the casualty has an unsplinted fractured leg
-An abdominal wound
-A head or spinal injury
What do you need to start if the casualty is in hypovolemic shock from combat injuries?
You may need to establish a saline lock and start an intravenous infusion. A saline lock should be initiated any time the casualty has suffered a severe loss of blood. If the casualty has an abnormal level of consciousness or no palpable radial (wrist) pulse on an uninjured arm, convert the saline lock to an intravenous infusion
When would you not loosen clothing?
In a Chemical Environment
What does immobilizing the limb reduce?
Reduces muscular activity helping to stop bleeding and reduce pain
What should you do if you must leave the casualty?
Move his/her head to the side to prevent choking if vomiting occurs
What is the first step for treating any type of burn?
Eliminate the source of the burn
What type of materials may melt and cause further injury?
Synthetic materials, such as nylon
What could high voltage electrical burns from an electrical source or lightning cause?
-Difficulties with the heart (irregular heartbeat)
What are blisters caused by a blister agent?
Blisters caused by a blister agent are actually burns
Would you decontaminate skin where blisters have already formed?
What should you do to clothing that is stuck to the wound?
DO NOT attempt to remove clothing that is stuck to the wound, additional harm could result
If the burn is caused by white phosphorous what should the bandage be?
What is significant about electrical burns?
Electricity often leaves entry and exit burns
When can you give the casualty small amounts of water to drink when treating burns?
If the casualty is conscious and not nauseated
How many different types of burns are there?
What are the four different types of burns?
What is the first step to treating a casualty for a heat injury?
Identify the type of heat injuiry
What are the symptoms of heat cramps?
-Cramping in the extremities (arms and legs)
What are the symptoms for heat exhaustion ?
-Profuse sweating with pale, moist, cool skin
-Loss of appetite
-Urge to defecate
-Tingling of the hands and/or feet
-Confusion (not answering easy questions correctly)
What are the symptoms for heatstroke?
-Red (flushed), hot, dry skin
-Stomach pains or cramps
-Respiration and pulse may be rapid & weak
-Unconsciousness and collapse may occur suddenly
What are iced sheets?
Sheets soaked in cold/icy water and placed directly onto the skin of the casualty will lower body temperature rapidly
Which heat casualty is a medical emergency that may result in death if treatment id delayed?
Where are the items needed to start a saline lock and/or IV infusion?
They are not a part of the individual first aid kit. They are components of a combat lifesaver aid bag or combat medic aid bag
Where are the preferred sites for the saline lock and IV?
The veins in the crook of the elbow because the are among the largest, most visible, and accessible veins in the arm
What is the next preferred location for a saline lock and IV?
The back of the hand, the foot, or a vein on the leg
What is the purpose of the constricting band?
To stop the blood in the vein from flowing back to the heart causing the vein to enlarge and become easier to locate.
What is the maximum time you can have the constricting band in place for?
No more than two minutes
What can be used to prepare the skin for IV needle insertion?
Both alcohol or povidone-iodine
What is the main reason for wearing gloves when you initiate an IV in battle?
What will be felt as the needle enters the vein?
A slight "give"
How many venipuncture attempts can you make?
No more than 2
Why should you not attempt to reinsert the needle into the catheter?
Reinsertion could cause a portion of the catheter to be sheared off, enter the bloodstream, and move to the heart where it could cause cardiac arrest
What does an occlusive dressing do?
Seals the catheter, at its point of insertion to the surrounding skin
What should you do if an IV is not to be started immediately?
You should flush the catheter and examine the site for signs of infiltration
What IV items should you check for if have a combat lifesaver aid bag prior to going on a mission?
-Catheter/ needle units
What can happen if you do not remove the air from the tubing?
It can enter the bloodstream and rapidly move to the heart. This can cause the casualty's heart to stop beating (Cardiac arrest)
What are some signs and symptoms of infiltration of an IV?
-Unusual pain felt by the casualty at the infusion site
-Swelling at the infusion site
-Redness at the infusion site
-The site is cool to the touch
-Clear fluid is leaking around the site
How should you roll a casualty onto their back?
The casualty should be carefully rolled as a whole, so the body does not twist
What should you do if foreign material or vomit is in the mouth?
Remove it as quickly as possible
What are two methods used to open an airway?
-Head tilt/ chin lift method
-Jaw thrust method
Explain how to perform the Head-tilt/Chin-lift method
(1) Kneel at the level of the casualty's shoulders
(2) Place the hand on the casualty's forehead and apply firm, backward pressure with the palm to tilt the head back
(3) Place the fingertips of the other hand under the bony part of the lower jaw and tilt, bringing the chin forward
Explain how to perform the Jaw-thrust method?
(1) Kneel above the casualty's head (looking at toward the casualty's feet)
(2) Rest your elbows on the ground or floor. The jaw below the ears
(3) Stabilize the casualty's head with your forearms
(4) Use the index finger to push the angles of the casualty's lower jaw forward
When do you not use the Head-tilt/Chin-lift method?
If a spinal or neck injury is suspected
What are things you should avoid when doing the Head-tilt/Chin-lift method?
-Do not use the thumb to lift
-Do not completely close the casualty's mouth
-Do not press deeply into the soft tissue under the chin with the fingertips
What is the maximum amount of times you should attempt the to use the Jaw-thrust method if it does not work?
No more than two times
When should you insert a NPA?
-If the casualty is unconscious
-If the respiratory rate is less than two in 15 seconds
-If the casualty id making snoring or gurgling sounds
What nostril are most NPAs designed to be placed in?
The right nostril
What are the two resuscitation breathing methods to assist a casualty that is not breathing?
-Mouth to mouth
-Mouth to nose
Why would you use the mouth to nose resuscitation method?
Because the casualty has jaw injuries or spasms
How would you perform the mouth to nose resuscitation method?
Blow air into the nose while holding the lips closed and let air escape by removing your mouth and, in some cases, separating the casualty's lips
How do you check for the causalty's pulse?
Use the first two fingers in the groove in the casualty's throat beside the Adam's apple on the side closest to you
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