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History of Modern Civilization Mid Term
Terms in this set (71)
form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people. An absolute monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people. Absolute monarchies are often hereditary but other means of transmission of power are attested. Absolute monarchy differs from limited monarchy, in which the monarch's authority is legally bound or restricted by a constitution; consequently, an absolute monarch is an autocrat.
form of democratic government in which a nonpolitical monarch acts as head of state within the boundaries of a constitution, whether written or unwritten. While the monarch may hold formal reserve powers and while government officially takes place in the monarch's name, they do not set public policy or choose political leaders.
From 1305 to 1375. Also known as Avignon Papacy in which Popes lived in Avignon France. Ended when Italian families became powerful enough to challenge the French.
1375-1417. Several people claim the rights to Papacy. No one knows who the true Pope is.
Most powerful dynasty in France. Created by Henri Bourbon of Navarre. Bourbons control France from 1593 to 1848.
Ancient fortified city that held great strategic military value because is placed on top of a cliff and is extremely hard to access. Bloody Mary (Mary Tudor) looses it.
Catherine de Medici
A regent (someone from aristocracy who rules until heir is of age) of France. Part of the Catholic League
Created by Henri Duke of Guise in 1576 during French Wars on Religion. Includes the Pope, Jesuits, Catherine de Medici, and Phillip II. All kings of France are always Catholic.
A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
Stuart King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Stuart King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
(1519-1556) - Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands.
Council of Blood
created by the Duke of Alba, Spanish governor of the Netherlands, in 1567. The job of this Council was to try cases of suspected treason committed by Protestant rebels against the Catholic government imposed by Spain.
Council of Constance
Occurred in 1417. Becomes the only representative body of the church. Elects a third and 4th Pope.
Council of Trent
Summoned by the Jesuits, occurred from 1545-1563. States:
1. Salvation through good works and faith
2. Bible is a source of authority and with church tradition
3. Church becomes supreme in church affairs
4. Seminaries established
5. INDEX: list of "proscribed books" or banned books. Denounces the Scientific Rev.
Diet of Worms
Representative meeting of aristocracy. Summoned by Holy Roman Empire Emperor Charles V of Hopsberg. Diet addresses/dismiss Martin Luther's 95 Theses. Invited Martin Luther to burn him at the stake.
Dissolution of Monasteries
Henry VIII is broke at end of reign. To raise money, he sells off the monasteries confiscated from the catholic church. All of the money goes to the king of nobility. Over next three centuries peasants scavenged the ruined buildings.
Edict of Nantes
Occurs in 1598, gives religious tolerance to Huguenots. Gives them rights to worship in own churches, schools, have their own villages (ghetto), and given militias.
Daughter of Anne Bolyen. Was locked up by Bloody Mary until she died. Ruled from 1558 to 1603. Had to fix all the issues from Bloody Mary's Rule: creates treaties with warring nations, economy rebuilds, leaves Calais, establishes Anglican Church, right to freedom of speech. Invented the Extralegal Court system. Considered one of England's greatest rulers.
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king
Extralegal Court Systems
Created by Elizabeth I. Outside of the legal system. 2 courts:
1. Star Chamber- all political enemies disappear
2. Court of High Commission- religious enemies disappear (puritans)
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
First eyewitness journalistic account in the history of the world ever written in English. Account of the Marian Martyrs. Said they went to their deaths with nobility, which creates a change in Weltanschauung.
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
Francis Valois I
Made France much more powerful, gained more money, and more stable in the first half of the 1500's.
Succeeded Henry II (his father) as king of France at the age of 15. His mother, Catherine de Medici, served as his regent and he was married to Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. His reign would represent a weakening of the French throne which would intensify the competition for influence or a claim to the throne. Always a sickly child, he would die in 1560, after only ruling for 18 months after an ear infection caused a swollen brain.
Frederick II of Saxony
saved Martin Luther by hiding him away in a castle after the Diet of Worms
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
Henri of Navarre, also known as the "Peasant King" because he grew up with peasants, ruled from 1593 to 1610. Most beloved king in the history of France. Assassinated in 1610 by Catholic terrorist.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Established the Church of England in 1532.
Were once awarded to the most valorous knights personally by the Pope. Essentially "get into heaven free cards". Indulgences then became a way for the church to gain money and sold them to commoners.
This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops
First written document in history that puts limitations on the power of the crown to abuse aristocracy.
Protestants that fled England fearing persecution under Bloody Marry
Professor at the University of Wittenburg. Wrote "95 Theses" in Latin proclaiming the arguments of reform needed in the church. Was excommunicated by the Pope. Invited by Charles V to Diet of Worms to be killed, but is saved by Frederick II of Saxony.
Mary Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
- daughter of Henry VIII ruled from 1553-1558, succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.
Peace of Augsburg
-1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
-A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany.
Petition of Right
1628. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.
Phillip II of Spain
Was married to Mary I of England. He didn't believe in religious toleration. Supported Mary Queen of Scotland's plot to Kill Elizabeth so he planned an invasion of England. He wanted to keep England in the Catholic fold. The destruction of the Spanish Armada of 1588 did not mean the end of the war, but it did prevent him from forcibly unifying all of Western Europe.
Pope Alex VI of Borgia
Elected in 1492. First Pope ever elected from Spain. Same year as Spain's Unification. Has two bastard children (cannot inherit his possessions): Lucrezia, a notorious poisoner, and Cesare who killed a Cardinal then took his position.
Pope Boniface VIII
In 1301, created a Papal Bull that states he is above all in the world, even though he has no army. This angers many kings, and he is eventually captured and killed in 1303
Pope Martin V
4th Pope elected in the Council of Constance. Trumps other three Popes because he is given an army. Signs a contract and swears to summon another council in 10 years, but this never happens as he is scared of being dethroned. 1st Pope of Renaissance Papacy (supportive of art and artist)
Pope Urban II
First Pope. Summoned the knights of France for the first crusade in 1092
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Revolt of Netherlands
rebellion of Protestant Low Countries against Philip II- regent Margaret of Parma agreed to Tolerance policy but after Protestant vandalism of Catholic churches Duke of Alba established Council of Blood
Revocation of Edict of Nantes
part of Louis XIV's efforts to have France have only one religion, he closed Huguenots churches and schools, banned all their public activities, and exiled those who refused to embrace the state religion
Dutchmen equivalent to English Privateers. 2 types of Sea Beggars:
1. Those who sail the seven seas. Only mission is to disrupt Spanish shipping.
2. Domestic Sea Beggars who sail rivers and canals of the seven northern most provinces (low countries).
1588 Phillip II tried to attack England but his naval fleet was completely destroyed
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Queen Catherine de Medici attempts to rid Paris of protestant leaders before they revolt. Coligny and 25,000 other Protestants were murdered over a four day period.
After Queen Elizabeth I Tudor's death in 1603, the Stuart Line of rulers came. Started with James I, King of Scotland. (Cousin of Elizabeth.) Then came Charles I, his son. Charles II. Then James II. Then William of Orange.
Battle of Hastings in England, This was the last time England was ever successfully invaded
Urban II summoned the knights of France for the first Crusade. This crusade is considered the only successful one.
30 years war
(1618-1648) Bourbon vs. Hapsburg War between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League in the Holy Roman Empire; each religion fought to stop the advance of the other
3 Tenants of Lutheranism
1. Salvation is through faith alone
2. Bible is the sole source of authority in religion
3. "...priesthood of all believers"- cuts across all class, gender, ethnicity lines
Unification of Spain
In 1492. King Ferdinand from the Kingdom of Aragon and Queen Isabella from the Kingdom of Castile. Spain becomes a rising superpower, France is their enemy. Expulsion of the Moors (Islamic group).
War of the Three Henris
Between Henri of Navarre (Huguenot), Henri of Guise (Catholic), and Henri Valois of France (Catholic). Guise sets out to assassinate Valois, so Valois seeks sanctuary with Navarre. Valois then tries to assassinate Guise. Both assassins are successful, leaving Henri Bourbon of Navarre the only one alive.
War of the Spanish Succession
1701-1713. war fought over the Spanish throne after Carlos II, the last Hapsburg of Spain, gives up his throne. Louis XIV wanted it for his grandson Phillip V and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France
William and Mary
1688 Royal couple ruling England. Daughter of James II and he was a prince of the Netherlands. Transformed England into a constitutional monarchy.
William the Silent
Leader of the Dutch Revolt against Philip's Spain. Went from Catholic, to Lutheran, before becoming a Calvinist. United both Catholics and Protestants against Catholic Philip.
French king who succeeded Henry IV when he was nine years old; his reign was dominated by the influence by his mother and regent Marie de Medici, Cardinal Richelieu, and wealthy nobles.
(1638-1715) "the Sun King;" considered to be the model of absolute monarchs; he controlled all aspects of government, and demonstrated his power and wealth with his palace at Versailles; engaged in efforts to increase his power by taking attacking Huguenots and engaging in wars to acquire more territory and power
Defenestration of Prague
Occurs in 1618, The hurling, by Protestants, of two Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
King of Sweden who invented the first professional army in Europe. Soldiers were paid and trained, and must follow commands. Took side with the protestants in the 30 years war, as they were the highest bidder for his army.
"Manuring of the Aristocracy"
Indendents, or non-noble bureaucrats, made second in power only to the crown (Bourgeoisie). Louis XIII made it so in order to curb the power of the aristocracy.
Louis XIII greatest adviser. A cardinal from 1624-1642, has no ethics and his agenda was to make France the greatest power in Europe.
1649-1653. Cromwell purged Parliament of any members who had not supported him. The remaining members that went on to have Charles I executed. Blue Laws implemented (no Merrymaking).
Peace of Westphalia
1. Ends the 30 years war
2. ends the revolt of the netherlands
3. ends 150 years of religious wars in europe
4. ends 150 years of great witchcraft hunts
5. ends the power of spain
6. Rise of France to great power status
7. Reassurgence if "curus regio, eius religio" (includes calvanists)
Peace of Utrecht
Ends the war of the Spanish Succession
New Model Army
1649. The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war against Charles I. Wants Charles I beheaded.
1648-1653. A series of disorganized riots or revolts in France during the beginning King Louis XIV reign caused by the aristocracy. This made him loath the arisotocracy, so he proceeds to make France an Absolute Divine Right Monarchy under his control.
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